By John W. O'Malley

Counter Reformation, Catholic Reformation, the Baroque Age, the Tridentine Age, the Confessional Age: why does Catholicism within the early glossy period cross by way of such a lot of names? And what political occasions, what non secular and cultural prejudices within the 19th and 20th centuries gave upward thrust to this confusion? taking on those questions, John O'Malley works out a striking advisor to the highbrow and ancient advancements at the back of the ideas of Catholic reform, the Counter Reformation, and, in his felicitous time period, Early sleek Catholicism. the result's the only most sensible review of scholarship on Catholicism in early sleek Europe, introduced in a pithy, lucid, and enjoyable sort. even supposing its topic is prime to almost all different matters in relation to 16th- and seventeenth-century Europe, there isn't any different publication like this in any language. greater than a historiographical overview, Trent and All That makes a compelling case for subsuming the current confusion of terminology less than the concept that of Early smooth Catholicism. The time period exhibits truly what this booklet so eloquently demonstrates: that Early glossy Catholicism used to be a side of early sleek historical past, which it strongly prompted and in which it was once itself in huge degree made up our minds. As a reviewer commented, O'Malley's dialogue of terminology "opens up a unique method of conceiving of the complete historical past of Catholicism among the Reformation and the French Revolution."

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The context in which his idea of Counter Reformation was born and transmitted was, however, Copyright © 2000 The President and Fellows of Harvard College How It All Began 21 Ex am Co py laden with presuppositions about the Catholic Church coming from both the Enlightenment and the Lutheran theological tradition. In this regard the two ideologies tended to converge, for both saw Catholic resurgence after Augsburg as due exclusively to political causes, speciªcally to powerful princes, who for their own ends waged war against the Protestants and who under the name of reform promoted within the Catholic Church nothing more than a rigid enforcement of discipline that would help consolidate their authority.

During these years he decided to become a priest for the diocese of Breslau. After three years of study at the University of Breslau, Jedin was ordained to the priesthood in 1924 at the age of twenty-four. By this time he had decided, with his bishop’s approval, on an academic career in history. 2 From 1926 until 1929 he worked in Rome on his biography of Seripando, and the next year he successfully presented the ªrst part of it as his Habilitationsschrift at the University of Breslau, which won him a teaching post there from 1930 until 1933, when Hitler came to power.

By its own inner logic Christianity in sincere inquirers ineluctably led to Protestantism. “Counter Reformation” expressed the quintessence of Catholicism, which was reaction and repression. Ex am Throughout the nineteenth century, then, the discussion and debate about terminology were conªned almost exclusively to German-speaking historians, with Lutherans taking the lead and Catholics for the most part reacting. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the categories invented by scholars writing in German were current outside German-speaking lands and were therefore moving into a new phase of their history.

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