By Ole Peter Grell

This quantity presents a historical past of the Scandinavian Reformation from its evangelical starting within the 1520s to its institutionalization by means of the mid-seventeenth century, while Lutheran territorial church buildings have been confirmed within the Nordic nations. It reassesses the position of the Catholic Church in attempting to halt the Reformation and strains the evangelical routine of their social context, targeting the connection between church, nation and society in post-Reformation Scandinavia, together with such points as renowned ideals and reputable faith.

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When Christian II arrived in Norway in 1531 with an expeditionary force, Engelbriktsson's influence on the political and ecclesiastical situation in Norway was considerable. While in Norway, however, Christian disclosed that he had not shed all his evangelical sympathies. In spite of quickly conquering parts of southern Norway and being strongly supported by most of the Catholic prelates, plus nobles and burghers, Christian II's invasion failed, and he ended up imprisoned at Sonderborg Castle in Jutland.

It had originally been made possible through a close collaboration between the Curia and the Danish kings, which circumvented and undermined the power of the local prelates. This understanding between pope and king came to an end during the reign of Frederik I, when, in 1526, the traditional contacts with Rome were suspended. Nothing changed, however, with regard to royal interference in the affairs of the church. Frederik I was, in fact, in a much stronger position than his predecessors with regard to the church, no The early Reformation in Denmark and Norway 35 longer needing to placate and bribe members of the Curia.

Likewise, the lay nobility was deeply worried about the growing ownership of arable land by the bishops in particular. Furthermore, there was the constant threat of an invasion from the exiled Christian II who could still muster substantial internal support among the lower nobility, burghers and peasants. The exiled king constituted a major security problem which was particularly worrying for the lay and ecclesiastical aristocracy who had been instrumental in his deposition. This constant threat resulted in considerable financial demands, especially extra taxes, by the government.

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