By Anthony Esolen

Every little thing you have to know--but notebook professors won't teach--about our Western heritage
Western civilization is the envy of the globe. It has given to the realm universally permitted understandings of human rights (rooted in Judeo-Christian principles), created criteria for artwork, tune, and literature that experience by no means been equaled, and originated political and social structures that experience unfold all around the planet.

Unfortunately, the fog of political correctness now obscures those and different truths approximately Western civilization. Leftists and Islamic jihadists locate universal reason in assailing Western "colonialism," "imperialism," and "racism" as its defining features. Guilt-ridden Western leaders and public figures converse in their cultural patrimony in disparaging phrases they might by no means dare to take advantage of a couple of non-Western tradition. And within the academy, "multicultural"-minded professors flatter scholars into believing they've got not anything quite to benefit from Sophocles or Shakespeare.

But now, Professor Anthony Esolen--one of the team-teachers of windfall College's esteemed improvement of Western Civilization middle Curriculum--has risen to the West's protection. The Politically improper Guide(TM) to Western Civilization takes at the triumphing liberal assumptions that make Western civilization the common whipping boy for today's international difficulties, and introduces you to the numerous occasions, members, countries, rules, and inventive achievements that make Western civilization the best the area has ever known.

Today--with the West imperiled as by no means prior to via the worldwide jihad and threats from China and elsewhere--defending the West has turn into an pressing important: if we don't price what we've got and what now we have inherited, we are going to definitely lose it. The Politically flawed Guide(tm) to Western Civilization is a vital sourcebook for that security.

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Because the results of law suits could now be recorded, leading to the establishment of legal codes, any citizen could appeal against an arbitrary ruling by a corrupt magistrate and cite legal precedent to uphold the appeal. This change led to more rational government and the rule of law. Greek expansion The period of Greek overseas settlement that began in the middle of the eighth century BCE lasted for more than 200 years. During that time, Greeks founded dozens of settlements on the fringes of the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Black seas.

During the Persian Wars, Sparta assumed the military leadership almost automatically, and the heroic death of King Leonidas and his followers in the pass of Thermopylae in 480 BCE reinforced Sparta’s claim to this leadership. The philosopher Plato declared that Sparta came closest to his concept of the ideal state. Many historians, however, would argue that Sparta’s rival, Athens, would have a greater claim to the title. Athens The city-state of Athens consisted of the city of Athens and the region surrounding it—the Attic Peninsula (generally called Attica) on the east coast of mainland Greece.

Spartan males were trained from a young age to become soldiers and were banned from engaging in trade or crafts. For this reason, it was the perioikoi who formed the class of traders and craftsmen that exported iron ore, limestone for building, bronze figurines, and painted pottery. Lycurgus and the constitution After the final subjugation of the Messenians, a number of changes took place in Spartan society. These reforms have 55 ANCIENT GREECE Two Greek wrestlers prepare to fight in this relief sculpture.

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