By Manfred Eigen

This e-book originated from a sequence of papers which have been released in "Die Naturwissenschaften" in 1977178. Its department into 3 elements is the mirrored image of a good judgment constitution, that could be abstracted within the type of 3 theses: A. Hypercycles are a precept of common selforganization permitting an inte­ gration and coherent evolution of a collection of functionally coupled self-rep­ licative entities. B. Hypercycles are a unique type of nonlinear response networks with designated houses, amenable to a unified mathematical remedy. C. Hypercycles may be able to originate within the mutant distribution of a unmarried Darwinian quasi-species via stabilization of its diverging mutant genes. as soon as nucleated hypercycles evolve to raised complexity by means of a strategy analogous to gene duplication and specialization. as a way to define the that means of the 1st assertion we may perhaps check with one other precept of fabric selforganization, particularly to Darwin's precept of average choice. This precept as we see it at the present time represents the one understood potential for developing info, be it the blue print for a posh dwelling organism which developed from much less advanced ancestral kinds, or be it a significant series of letters the choice of which are simulated via evolutionary version video games.

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It refers to a natural ~ituation in early evolution, where the physical forces inherent in the nucleotides may have been sufficient for an evolution of stable t-RNA-like molecules (=single words), but did not admit the buildup of an- even primitive- translation apparatus (=a whole 'meaningful' sentence). Accordingly, lhe computer is programmed just to reproduce single words using error rates sufficient to guarantee their stability against accumulation 0f errors. As a first variant of the game let us try to establish a plain coexistence of the four words.

All eigenvalues w. negative real parts and hence fluctuations along all possible directions in concentration space are compensated by an internal counteracting force. In chemistry, sinks correspond to chemical equilibria in closed and to stable stationary states in open thermodynamic systems. (2) Saddle points with at least one direction of instability. Here one w. value at least will have a positive real part. Consequently, a small perturbation or fluctuation in this direction introduces a force that tends to increase the fluctuation.

21. Illustration of some points with positions exhibiting charactc;istic dependence nn total concentration c0 in concentration space %, Ia I ,md on the simplex S 3 (b). A ~tc 0 /3, c 0 /3, c 0 (h 8=(0, 0, c 0 ), C,;,(l. c0 -l, 0) and D=(c 0 -l, c0 -l, 2-c 0 j. ensional concentration space is called the unlt simplex. An illustration ofu simplex, which can be described in three-dimensional space and therefore is easy to risualize, is given in Figure 20. 771e unit simplex includes the total physically meaningful range of concentrations and is best suited for a dia3rammatic representation of select1v~ processes.

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