By Alan R Hemsley; Imogen Poole; Linnean Society of London. Palaeobotany Specialist Group

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Evolution of plant life forms. In: Givnish TJ, ed. On the Economy of Plant Form and Function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 421-492. Raven JA. 1993. The evolution of vascular plants in relation to quantitative functioning of dead water-conducting cells and stomata. Biological Reviews 68: 337-363. Raven JA. 1994a. Physiological analyses of aspects of the functioning of vascular tissue in early plants. Botanical Journal of Scotland 47: 49-64. Raven JA. 1994b. The significance of the distance from photosynthesising cells to vascular tissue in extant and early vascular plants.

Thus, Church (1919) held that stomata were not involved in photosynthetic CO2 uptake, but were involved in the transpirational flux of nutrients from the soil solution to the shoot. This suggestion is not entirely without foundation in evidence from the fossil record as far as transpiration and nutrient uptake are concerned. 18), a presumed site of a high requirement for soil-derived nutrients such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Fe (Edwards et ai, 1996,1998; Raven, 2002). A second line of evidence comes from the fact that, to date, presence of an endodermis in below-ground, nutrientabsorbing structures in embryophytes before the Carboniferous has not been demonstrated (Raven, 1984; Raven and Edwards, 2001), although it must be acknowledged that we have next to no anatomical information on such structures through this time interval.

2000). Desiccation tolerance, desiccation intolerance, poikilohydry and homoiohydry Poikilohydry of algae and early-evolving embryophytes The inevitability of water loss in terrestrial photolithotrophs during growth, combined with variability of water supply, leads to potentially lethal water loss in organisms which combine two characteristics: poikilohydry and desiccation intolerance. Poikilohydric plants have little or no capacity to restrict water loss when the rate of evaporative water loss exceeds the rate of liquid water supply.

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