By Togashi T., Cox P.A. (eds.)

Darwin pointed out the lifestyles of separate female and male gametes as one of many significant mysteries of evolutionary biology. a hundred and fifty years later, the query of why male gametes exist continues to be an exciting puzzle. during this, the 1st publication completely dedicated to the evolution of anisogamy, most sensible theorists within the box discover why gamete dimorphism characterizes approximately all vegetation and animals. Did separate female and male gametes evolve due to festival, or does anisogamy in its place signify choice for cooperation? If disruptive choice drove the evolution of anisogamy, with male gametes occupied with seek and fusion, and feminine gametes provisioning the hot zygote, why perform a little algal species proceed to supply gametes of a unmarried measurement? Does sperm trouble, or break out from an infection, larger clarify the necessity for terribly small, hugely cellular sperm? Written by way of leaders within the box, this quantity deals an authoritative and state of the art assessment of evolutionary conception.

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Since the best response to a high m2 is a low m1 , and vice versa, Rðm2 Þ has a negative slope. If this slope, R0 ðmÞ, is between –1 and 0, there is continuous stability; but if R0 ðmÞ is less than –1, the ESS is continuously unstable. 2b), by using the “cobweb” technique (Sandefur, 1990). This technique can be explained as follows. Taking a given m value on the broken line in each of Figs. 3a–c, the intersect on the curve (above or below it) gives the best reply, RðmÞ. This m value can be extrapolated to its equivalent new m value by finding its intersect, horizontally left or right, on the broken line.

1b). Further, if (i) there is a vast range of gamete sizes in the ancestral population, (ii) x > 1, and (iii) f ð2δÞ ! 0, where δ = the minimum size for a gamete to survive, the surviving adults are approximately equal numbers of two genotypes, one that produces microgametes (proto-sperm producers) and one that produces macrogametes (proto-ovum producers). e. microgamete isogamy, anisogamy, or macrogamete isogamy) is achieved in the ancestral population. e. linearity) for the threshold between microgamete isogamy (x < 1) and anisogamy (x > 1).

G. , 2009). PBS theory therefore appears to be very robust, mainly reliant only on the general assumptions about productivity versus provisioning, which can generate disruptive selection through gamete competition. , 2009). 4) has some support from comparative studies, particularly of volvocine algae. Knowlton (1974) was the first to note an association between increased complexity and a switch from isogamy to anisogamy in the Volvocales, and this has been supported using modern comparative methods (Randerson and Hurst, 2001a, b).

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