By Jeremy R. Garrett, Fabrice Jotterand, D. Christopher Ralston

In just 4 a long time, bioethics has reworked from a fledgling box right into a advanced, speedily increasing, multidisciplinary box of inquiry and perform. Its impact are available not just in our highbrow and biomedical associations, but in addition in virtually each part of our social, cultural, and political existence. This quantity maps the amazing improvement of bioethics in American tradition, uncovering the important Read more...


This quantity of unique essays stories the advance of bioethics in American tradition, exposing the ancient elements that ended in its genesis, examining its cultural, philosophical and Read more...

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The categories medical students were asked to address, to identify unmet needs in their curriculum, included “religion” and “philosophy” but not “ethics,” consistent with the categories employed in Phase I. In questions that apparently reflected the Committee’s own image of what sort of physician would be produced by a more “humanities”-rich environment, patient representatives were asked whether it mattered to them if their physicians were religious and/or liked music; the patients answered “no” (Minutes, Medical Humanities Committee, 1/26/1972, 2/16/1972, IMH Records, RG9, Box 2, File 18, UTMB archives).

They previously had been working on similar projects on their own, but without the support of the group that the Hastings Center provided. There were virtually no philosophers of medicine to talk with at the time, so I went to California to spend several days with Otto Guttentag, a physician and philosopher at University of California Medical School in San Francisco, who supported the idea of the importance of theory in medicine. The attack on medical paternalism and sterile ideas of autonomy – what Daniel Callahan called “the desert of autonomy and paternalism” – that characterized the early days of bioethics (and too often still does) was really an attack on the authority of medicine and science to dictate to quotidian concerns.

His brilliant record as an intern earned him a residency position in obstetrics, which permitted him 2 more years of in-hospital specialized training in obstetrics. He was appointed Chief Resident in obstetrics at the Johns Hopkins Hospital for the academic year 1955–1956. During his 3-year period of residency, he arranged to have some free time to work in the department of physiology at Yale Medical School. He had earned a Kennedy scholarship to support3 himself and his family while working on his research project—investigating the placental transfer of oxygen in pregnant sheep.

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