By Anthony Kaldellis

Byzantine Athens was once no longer a urban with out a heritage, as is usually believed, yet an immense middle approximately which a lot can now be acknowledged. offering a wealth of recent facts, Professor Kaldellis argues that the Parthenon grew to become a big web site of Christian pilgrimage after its conversion right into a church. satirically, it was once extra very important as a church than it were as a temple: the Byzantine interval was once its precise age of glory. He examines the idiosyncratic fusion of pagan and Christian tradition that happened in Athens, the place an try was once made to duplicate the classical earlier in Christian phrases, affecting rhetoric, monuments, and miracles. He additionally re-evaluates the reception of historic ruins in Byzantine Greece and provides for the 1st time a kind of pilgrimage that was once directed no longer towards icons, Holy Lands, or holy males yet towards a monument embodying an everlasting cultural rigidity and spiritual dialectic.

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In fact, he says less about the Parthenon individually than he does about some of the others, for instance the Propylaia. 41. For tourist interest in the dedications, see Casson (1994) 236-237. Given what we see in Pausanias and other extant authors, I am not as optimistic as Beard (2002) 23 that the lost "gazetteers to the Athenian Akropolis ... " The fourth-century orator Himerios would show visitors to Athens the olive tree and sea-water cistern on the Akropolis: Or. 3. 211 Plutarch, Perikles 12-13, esp.

Conversions of the Parthenon of the monument and of the city of Athens in the Byzantine world and beyond. This type of direct conversion was rare and in some other respects unique in the Roman world, and this peculiarity contributed to the emer- gence of the site as one of the chief religious and even archaeological attractions of the middle Byzantine period. Athens did not follow "the rules" for making the transition to Christianity, and this contributed to its astonishing success story in Byzantium: the most notoriously pagan city of antiquity became one of the most Christian, though without ever fully turning its back on its pagan past.

151; for the schools of Athens in this period, Watts (2006). 10. Assyria: Matthews (1989) 48-51. 36 For their journey, see Dimitroukas (1997) v. I, 200-211; Athanassiadi (1999) 34-39. Conversions of the Parthenon church just a few years before Damaskios' arrival, as we will see below. In this case, the last head of the Academy in Athens before Justinian's closing of the schools would have arrived in Athens only a few years after the 900-year history of the pagan Parthenon had ended and its 1,000-year history as a church had begun.

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