By Jacob Bronowski

Lauded via critics & wolfed through readers, this spouse to the BBC sequence lines the advance of technological know-how as an expression of the precise presents that signify people & make us preeminent animals. Bronowski's interesting, illustrated research bargains a viewpoint not only on technology, yet on civilization itself.

Lower than the angels
The harvest of the seasons
The grain within the stone
The hidden constitution
The tune of the spheres
The starry messanger
The majestic clockwork
The force for strength
The ladder of production
World inside of international
Knowledge or sure bet
Generation upon generation
The lengthy childhood

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Redrawn from Schoener (2009). 6; see also Pacala and Roughgarden 1985; Pritchard and Schluter 2001; Gray and Robinson 2002; Schluter 2003). Such data are important, because it is on individual organisms that competitively mediated selection acts during the evolution of character displacement. Thus, ample evidence suggests that the more dissimilar any two species, populations, and individuals are in resource use, the less intense the resource competition between them and, therefore, the more likely they will be to coexist (all else being equal).

By “resources” we mean any feature of the environment—such as food, water, light, or space—that organisms need to survive and reproduce and that can be consumed or otherwise used to the point of depletion (exclusive of gametes or mates, which we discuss later in this chapter). By “limited” we mean that the resource’s supply is short relative to demand. Because resource competition ultimately depends on this ratio of demand to supply, 3 0 Ɠ C H A P T E R TWO the process of competing for resources is not an all-or-nothing process.

Here, the focal species are bacterivorous Paramecium, and the resource-use trait is mouth size. In this experiment, researchers introduced into a microcosm about 100 individuals each of two different species. Each species was Enfield, NH, matched against nine other species, for a total of 45 two-species combinations. After eight weeks, either competitive exclusion or stable coexistence was observed (the frequency of competitive exclusion was estimated as the fraction of times each species pair exhibited competitive exclusion out of the three replicates for that pairwise species interaction treatment).

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