By Steven Ozment

Examines the Protestant Reformation, its philosophical and theological matters, and the interplay of spiritual, social, and political alterations.

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The Trial ofJeanne d'Arc, trans. W. P. Barrett (New York, 1932),320-21. 21. "Spiritus sanctus est amor sive charitas, qua nos diligimus Deum et proximum; quae charitas cum ita est in nobis, ut nos faciat diligere Deum et proximum, tunc Spiritus sanctus dicitur mitti vel dari nobis; et qui diligit ipsam dilectionem qua diligit proximum, in eo ipso Deum diligit, quia ipsa dilectio Deus est, id est, spiritus sanctus" (I Sent. d. 17, art. 2, p. 54). 22. See Paul Vignaux, Luther, Commenteur des Sentences (Paris, 1935).

The Fall into Sin. Lucas Cranach the Elder. Before they ate the fruit of the forbidden tree, Adam and Eve were completely at peace with themselves, their maker, and nature. Through the calm beauty of EdenCranach conveys to the viewer a sense of impending doom as Adam and Eve proceed to transgress God's commandment. Aristotle and Phyllis. Urs Graf. The subordination of man's will and desires to his reasonthe hierarchical ordering of the soul's faculties-was both a classical and a Christian ideal.

Against the Scotist axiom "Nothing created must, for reasons intrinsic to it, be accepted by God," Auriole argued that God could only be present where grace and love were present: "Love is the cause of divine acceptance by its very nature and of necessity" (Caritas est ratio acceptationis ex natura rei et de necessitate). 36 As iniquity was intrinsically despicable to God and repelled him, love was intrinsically agreeable and attracted him. By nature God inclined to all who possessed and evidenced his grace; he loved people only as they were themselves beautiful.

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