By V. Nikolic-Ristanovic

Based on huge learn fabric accumulated in Hungary, Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria Social swap, Gender and Violence is the booklet which explores the effect of transition from communism and battle on lifestyle of ladies and males, in addition to the best way how way of life and gender similar adjustments impact women's vulnerability to family violence and trafficking in ladies. The e-book additionally explores the effect of micro point adjustments on improvement of civil society, women's circulation, and criminal and coverage adjustments concerning violence opposed to girls. it is a special ebook, which attempts to examine violence opposed to girls as attached to oppression of either men and women. It argues that violence opposed to girls in post-communist and conflict affected societies is considerably hooked up to the rise of social stratification, financial worry, unemployment, instability, uncertainty and comparable social stresses, adjustments in gender id and structural inequalities introduced by means of new global order. utilizing principally debts of greater than hundred interviewed humans, the writer exhibits vividly how, in post-communist societies, the contradictions of capitalism are interlaced with the in most cases detrimental relics of communism. additionally, the ebook indicates how contradictory strategies in post-communist societies have ended in a slightly paradoxical end result: political pluralism and a capitalist economic climate generated either violence opposed to girls and a women's stream, albeit no longer the stipulations for a discount of violence.

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For respondents from all four countries who were unemployed for a longer or shorter period during the last ten years, the common characteristic is that they had some kind of informal employment. g. ). Macedonians and Serbs traveled to neighboring Bulgaria, Turkey or Hungary and smuggled goods to sell LIKE A MIRROR IMAGE 29 later in these countries 36 Women more often than men accepted informal jobs which do not fit their education (lndshewa, Filipova and Marinova, interviews 1999). However, it was very difficult to earn money in this way, especially because demand for domestic help and related services decreased with the decrease in general standard of living (Coneva, interview, 1999).

This impact was most directly manifested in changes regarding length of both work and leisure time. Looking at the connection between employment change and working hours changes, it is possible to identify two main categories of people: those whose working hours arc now significally longer than earlier and those whose working hours mainly stayed the same, or even became shorter: a) Those who used to work in state firms but later became private entrepreneurs, started to work for a private firm, in the informal sector or for an NGO, as well as those who have been doing both state and some additional job on a regular basis, and whose working hours are significantly longer now than earlier; b) Those who have been employed in (usually the same) state firm all the time, with no or rare additional economic activities, and whose working time did not change considerably over the last l 0 years or even became shorter.

Consequently, an increased presence of military (NATO and UN forces) in the region as a whole and in Macedonia, in particular, had many consequences on both the economic and political life of the country. During the Kosovo war and NATO bombing, the Macedonian economy was seriously hit2°, since this already poor country was pressured to accept enormous numbers of both Kosovo refugees and NATO soldiers, without being given appropriate compensation by the West. 21 Also, the war forced Macedonian factories that do business with Yugoslavia to stop or curtail production, leading to an increase in unemployment or irregular wage payment.

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