By Y. Zhao, Tomiki Ikeda
This booklet experiences the state-of-the-art major learn within the box of clever light-responsive fabrics in line with azobenzene polymers and liquid crystals. Emphasis is put on the invention of latest phenomena from the previous five years, their underlying mechanisms, new functionalities, and homes accomplished via rational layout. Edited by way of prime experts within the box, Zhao and Ikeda, the chapters are authored via an internationally-recognized workforce of specialists from North the USA, Europe, and Asia. clever Light-Responsive fabrics will serve to catalyze new examine that might lead this box over the subsequent 5-10 years.
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Additional info for Smart Light-Responsive Materials: Azobenzene-Containing Polymers and Liquid Crystals
1975). On isomerization, the lamellae were disrupted and rearranged, which also changed the enzymatic activity of membrane-bound proteins. The catalytic activity of a cyclodextrin with a histidine and azobenzene pendant was photocontrollable because the trans version of the azo pendant can bind inside the cyclodextrin pocket, whereas the cis version liberated the catalytic site (Lee and Ueno, 2001). Photoregulation of polypeptide structure has been an active area of research (Ciardelli and Pieroni, 2001), with the azobenzenes making signiﬁcant contributions.
More conclusive experiments are in order. , 2003). The macroscopic bending direction may be selected either with polarized light or by aligning the chromophores with rubbing. Bending occurs in these relatively thick ﬁlms because the free surface (which absorbs light) contracts, whereas the interior of the ﬁlm (which is not irradiated owing to the strong absorption of the upper part of the ﬁlm) does not contract. , 2005). , 2004). That these materials contract (rather than expand) appears again to be related to the main-chain azo groups and may also be related to the LC nature of the cross-linked gels.
The phase of a liquid crystal can also be switched with light. Irradiation produces cis isomers, which are poor mesogens and destabilize the nematic phase, thereby inducing a phase transition to the isotropic state. There are comparatively few examples of phototriggered increases in LC ordering. In one case, a nanoscale phase separation of the cis isomers led to a net increase in the order parameter of the LC phase (Prasad and Nair, 2001). In another system, a chiral azo was found to induce a cholesteric phase when it was in the cis state (Ruslim and Ichimura, 2001).