By Theodore Provder, Jamil Baghdachi

content material: bankruptcy 1. advent; 1.1 normal creation; 1,2 a short precis of tendencies in Amino Acid Synthesis; 1.3 business Synthesis; 1.4 Amino Acid homes; 1.5 Absolute Configuration; 1.6 selection of Enantiomeric Purity; 1.7 choice of Enantiomeric Purity: NMR research; 1.8 selection of Enantiomeric Purity: HPLC Chromatographic research; 1.9 selection of Enantiomeric Purity: GC Chromatographic research; 1.10 decision of Enantiomeric Purity: Capillary Electrophoresis research; 1.11 choice of Enantiomeric Purity: TLC Chromatographic research; 1.12 selection of Enantiomeric Purity: Mass Spectrometric tools; 1.13 selection of Enantiomeric Purity: different equipment; bankruptcy 2. SYNTHESIS OF RACEMIC A-AMINO ACIDS: AMINATION AND CARBOXYLATION; 2.1 Primordial Amino Acids; 2.2 Addition of the Amino and Carboxy teams to the aspect Chain (Aminocarboxylation Reactions); 2.3 Addition of the Amino workforce (Amination Reactions); 2.4 Addition of the Carboxyl staff (Carboxylation Reactions); 2.4.1 Electrophilic Carboxylation; 2.4.2 Nucleophilic Carboxylation; bankruptcy three. SYNTHESIS OF RACEMIC -AMINO ACIDS: creation OF THE aspect CHAIN; 3.1 advent; 3.2 Alkylation of Aminomalonic Acids; 3.3 Alkylation of Aminocyanoacetic Acids; 3.4 Alkylation of Schiff Bases; 3.5 Alkylation of Isocyanoacetates; 3.6 Alkylation of different Activated Glycine Equivalents; 3.7 Alkylation of Non-Activated Glycines; 3.8 Alkylation of Glycine Equivalents through different equipment; 3.9 Alkylation of an Electrophilic Glycine similar; three. 10 Radical Alkylations; bankruptcy four. SYNTHESIS AND ELABORATION OF DIDEHYDRO AMINO ACIDS; 4.1 advent; 4.2 Sythesis of Didehydroamino Acids; 4.3 Reactions of Didehydroamino Acids; bankruptcy five. SYNTHESIS OF OPTICALLY lively A-AMINO ACIDS: EXTENSION OF ACHIRAL equipment - AMINATION AND CARBOXYLATION REACTIONS; 5.1 creation; 5.2 uneven Aminocarboxylation response; 5.3 uneven Amination Reactions; 5.4 uneven Carboxylation Reactions; bankruptcy 6. SYNTHESIS OF OPTICALLY energetic AMINO ACIDS: EXTENSION OF ACHIRAL tools - advent FO THE aspect CHAIN TO ACYCLIC structures; 6.1 creation; 6.2 uneven Alkylations of Glycine Enolates; 6.3 Reactions of Isocyanocarboxylate Enolates; 6.4 Alkylations of Schiff Bases of Glycine or different Amino Acids; 6.5 uneven Alkylations of Electrophilic Glycine Equivalents; 6.6 uneven Radical Alkylations of Acyclic Glycine Equivalents; bankruptcy 7. SYNTHESIS OF OPTICALLY lively A-AMINO ACIDS: ALKYLATION OF CYCLIC CHIRAL TEMPLATES; 7.1 creation; 7.2 Schollkopf Bis-lactim Ether; 7.3 Piperazine-2,5-dione; 7.4 Morpholine-2,5-dione; 7.5 Williams Oxazinone (5,6-diphenyl-1,4-oxazin-2-one, 5,6-diphenylmorpholin-2-one); 7.6 different Oxazinones (1,4-oxazin-2-one, morpholin-2-one); 7.7 Seebach Oxazolidin-5-one; 7.8 Oxazolidin-2-ones; 7.9 Seebach Imidazolidin-4-one; 7.10 different Imidazolidinones and comparable Templates; 7.11 Cyclic steel Complexes; 7.12 different Cyclic Chiral Templates; bankruptcy eight. SYNTHESIS OF OPTICALLY lively A-AMINO ACIDS: establishing OF SMALL RING structures; 8.1 advent; 8.2 Aziridines; 8.3 Azirines; 8.4 Epoxides; 8.5 b-Lactams; bankruptcy nine. SYNTHESIS OF OPTICALLY lively A-AMINO ACIDS: ELABORATION OF AMINO ACIDS except SERINE; 9.1 creation; 9.2 Synthesis of Optically energetic Amino Acids from Aspartic Acid; 9.3 Synthesis of Optically lively Amino Acids from Glutamic Acid; 9.4 Synthesis of Optically lively Amino Acids from Asparagine/Glutamine; 9.5 Syntheses from different Amino Acids; bankruptcy 10. SYNTHESIS OF OPTICALLY lively -AMINO ACIDS: ELABORATION OF SERINE; 10.1 creation; 10.2 Racemization of Serine; 10.3 Nucleophilic Displacement of an Activated Serine Hydroxyl workforce; 10.4 Radical Reactions; 10.5 Nucleophilic Alaninol Synthons Derived from Serine; 10.6 Serine Aldehydes: Conversion of the Serine Carboxyl staff into an Aldehyde/Ketone; 10.7 Serine Aldehydes: Conversion of the Serine aspect Chain Hydroxyl crew into an Aldehyde; 10.8 different Reactions of Serine; bankruptcy eleven. SYNTHESIS OF -, -, -, AND -AMINO ACIDS; 11.1 advent; 11.2 b-Amino Acids; 11.3 Cyclic b-Amino Acids; 11.4 y-Amino Acids; 11.5 Cyclic y-Amino Acids; 11.6 -Amino Acids; 11.7 Cyclic -Amino Acids; 11.8 -Amino Acids; bankruptcy 12. adjustments OF AMINO ACIDS: solution, N-ALKYLATION, N-PROTECTION, AMIDATION AND COUPLING; 12.1 Resolutions of a-Amino Acids; 12.2 N-Alkylation of Amino Acids; 12.3 N-Acylation and N-Protection of Amino Acids; 12.4 Amidation and Amide Hydrolysis; 12.5 Coupling of Amino Acids

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