By Carl Sagan, Ann Druyan

"Dazzling...A banquet. soaking up and assuredly written, it tells of theorigins of lifestyles in the world, describes its style and charaacter, and culminates in a dialogue of human nature and teh advanced lines ofhumankind's evolutionary past...It is an grand tale masterfully told."
World popular scientist Carl Sagan and acclaimed writer Ann Druyan have written a ROOTS for the human species, a lucid and riveting account of ways people acquired to be the best way we're. It exhibits with humor and drama that lots of our key traits--self-awareness, know-how, kinfolk ties, submission to authority, hatred for these a bit assorted from ourselves, cause, and ethics--are rooted within the deep prior, and illuminated via our kinship with different animals. stunning in its scope, fantastic in its insights, and a fully compelling learn, SHADOWS OF FORGOTTEN ANCESTORS is a triumph of renowned technological know-how.

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53 That red line on the thermometer is a medical myth. Our hands differ: The muscles that straighten our index fingers may or may not attach to a second tendon for an adjacent finger (many a pianist’s career has been ruined by this variation in human anatomy). The palmaris longis, one of the muscles that flex our wrist, does not exist in one of eight people; 1 in 100 have two of them. ) The pectoral muscles, which let us hold and throw things, attach to different ribs in different people. 54 People can be born with more than five fingers.

Indeed, the more you need to mentally revolve the pictured hands to position them like your own, the longer the judgment takes. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans show us this task links to the brain’s own control of the hands. If the picture of the hand matches your right hand, it activates areas on the left side of your brain, the side that processes nerve impulses to and from your right hand. If instead it matches your left hand, it activates the same areas, but on the other side. 88 And not only are we doing this by an imaginative process, but so deep is it to the act of thought that we are doing it unawares.

During slow-wave sleep the body moves around, and this helps churn the aqueous humor. But during periods of paralysis in REM sleep, those eye movements need to be triggered in some way. The cerebral cortex, shut down in sleep, cannot by itself do this. So, Maurice argues, eye movement is generated instead by ponto-geniculo-occipital potentials that originate in the brainstem and then, after entering the cerebral cortex, activate the motor area that in turn sets off eye movements30. For whatever reason they exist, such potentials provide the cerebral cortex with an important source of stimulation during sleep.

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