By Charlotte Hemelrijk

Even though everyone is ruled through uncomplicated ideas, their interactions with one another and their surroundings results in advanced styles. This ebook observes social platforms starting from easy single-celled organisms to very advanced ones, equivalent to people. It examines teams of all sizes, from small as in convinced species of primates, to large as with a few species of fish and social bugs. Self-organization is common through the animal country. This publication illustrates the varied features that display social association, together with team formation, task-division, foraging, dominance interactions, baby security, language and vote casting.

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Maree, A. F. M. and Hogeweg, P. (2001). How amoeboids self-organize into a fruiting body: multicellular coordination in Dictyostelium discoideum. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 3879--3883. Maree, A. F. , Panfilov, A. V. and Hogeweg, P. (1999a). Migration and thermotaxis of Dictyostelium discoideum slugs: a model study. J. Theoret. Biol. 199, 297--309. (1999b). Phototaxis during the slug stage of Dictyostelium discoideum: a model study. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 266, 1351--1360. Martiel, J. L. and Goldbeter, A.

Soc. London B 323, 185--224. Noegel, A. A. and Schleicher, M. (2000). The actin cytoskleleton of Dictyostelium: a story told by mutants. J. Cell Sci. 113, 759--766. Othmer, H. , Monk, P. B. and Rapp, P. E. (1985). A model for signal relay and adaptation of Dictyostelium discoideum. II. Analytical and numerical results. Math. Biosci. 77, 79--139. Palsson, E. and Othmer, H. G. (2000). A model for individual and collective cell movement in Dictyostelium discoideum. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 10448--10453.

Where s is the number of sources present and k acts as a concentration threshold beyond which the choice of a trail begins to be effective. The parameter l stands for the sensitivity of the process of choice of a particular trail on the pheromonal concentrations ci present. Large values of l correspond to a deterministic behaviour (close to an all-or-none response). , 1992a, 1993). The model equations can be now written in the form dc i = φq F i − νc i dt i = 1, . . 1 summarises the main results of analytical work previously performed on these equations in the case where two sources are present.

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