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3 eV, which might be due to the lattice diffusion of boron and nitrogen atoms in BN [11]. Structures of Nanoparticles with Fivefold Symmetry Fivefold symmetry is allowed only in small particles and quasicrystals [12, 13]. Various kinds of multiply twinned particles with fivefold symmetry have been reported for face-centered cubic (fcc) structure in the early stages of particle growth [14–19]. However, the fivefold symmetry formed from an fcc structure should have distortion due to the geometrical arrangements along the fivefold axis.

Optimization of the atomic structure was performed by molecular orbital calculation. 308 eV. 94 eV [34], the present B23N22 cluster shows an 1 Synthesis, Structures and Properties of Boron Nitride Nanoparticles a b e d 10 0 –5 c 10 5 Energy (eV) Energy (eV) 5 13 BB NN Total 0 –5 B-2s2p N-2s2p NN BB –15 N –15 B –10 Total –10 Density of States Fig. 11 Atomic structure models of (a, b) B731N713 and (c) B1462N1426 observed along (a) and perpendicular (b, c) to fivefold axis. 308 eV, which indicates decrease of the HOMO–LUMO energy gap by introducing BÀB bonding and the fivefold structure [24].

Oku, Structure Analysis of Advanced Nanomaterials: Nanoworld by High-resolution Electron Microscopy (Walter De Gruyter, 2014) 10. T. Oku, K. Hiraga, T. Matsuda, T. Hirai, M. Hirabayashi, Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 1918 (2003) 11. T. Oku, K. Hiraga, T. Matsuda, Mater. Trans. 49, 2461 (2008) 12. D. Shechtman, I. Blech, D. Gratias, J. Cahn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 1951 (1984) 13. K. Hiraga, W. J. Lincoln, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L302 (1991) 1 Synthesis, Structures and Properties of Boron Nitride Nanoparticles 39 14.

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