By M.J. Forrest
This overview outlines each one strategy utilized in rubber research after which illustrates which equipment are utilized to figure out which proof. this article is an efficient advent to a really complicated topic sector and should let the reader to appreciate the fundamental techniques of rubber research. round 350 abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database accompany this evaluate, to facilitate additional studying. those contain middle unique references including abstracts from many of the most recent papers on rubber research
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Additional info for Rubber Analysis : Polymers, Compounds and Products
In the case of rubber products, the bloom can appear during storage or service. A bloom can be an aesthetic problem which effectively categorises the product as a failure as much as poor cure state or air blisters. , zinc stearate) paraffinic waxes - usually desirable to provide a physical barrier to ozone and to assist in the migration of antidegradants to the surface. , weeks) to appear and in these cases the storage temperature can be critical; a lowering of the temperature reducing the 39 Rubber Analysis – Polymers, Compounds and Products solubility of the bloom generating species and increasing its migration rate to the surface.
If problems are still encountered, it is possible to remove the bloom using a dry swab technique (to avoid contamination by extractables), the material is taken off the swab in a solvent, such as chloroform, and analysed by GC-MS. This technique has the benefit of a chromatographic separation step and so aids the identification of complex blooms. It is also possible to use other chromatographic techniques such as TLC and HPLC. If the type of microcystalline wax blooming to the surface is required, and sufficient sample is available, DSC can be employed.
Rubber Analysis – Polymers, Compounds and Products However, there are examples, and quality control work is one, where the uncured sample will be available. This will provide the opportunity to look for unreacted accelerators and cure agents such as peroxides. Particular care has to be taken because these chemicals are, by their nature, thermally labile and reactive. It is not possible therefore to use hot solvent extraction and elevated temperature analysis techniques such as GCMS, since these will bring about the same types of reactions that occur during cure.