By Gottfried Ehrenstein, Sonja Pongratz
A polymeric material's resistance to various environmental or processing comparable affects determines its suitability in any variety of functions. trustworthy info and function predictions effect fabric choice. They take numerous affects under consideration, between them resin manufacture, compounding, stabilization, processing, half layout and finish use. This publication relies at the overview of greater than 1,200 literature resources and represents a accomplished evaluation of the present information in regards to the balance and resistance of thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers in addition to the main widely used reinforcements and ingredients. large tables record fabric resistance to given media, facilitating applicable fabric choice or stabilization for a given program.
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Extra resources for Resistance and Stability of Polymers
Physical aging processes are accelerated by elevated temperatures. A change in physical structure caused by physical aging processes is often accompanied by a change in dimensions that creates mechanical stresses in the material due to inhibition of elongation or shrinkage. Cracks or fractures are the result of such stresses. Physical aging processes also change properties such as water absorption and diffusion and oxygen diffusion. This has consequences for mechanical properties and the progress of chemical degradation processes.
Thermal degradation of PF resins begins at 280 – 300 °C. Novolac-hexa mixtures cure faster than resoles. We distinguish the following reaction states during the crosslinking of PF resins: A-state: Linear initial state; resole or novolac; liquid or solid; meltable and soluble B-state: Not clearly defined interim state, also termed “resitole”; meltable and still shapable when heated; insoluble, but swellable; low mechanical strength, C-state: Final state, also termed “resite”; unmeltable, insoluble; high mechanical strength and chemical resistance.
The processor may increase the styrene content to a certain extent in order to lower the viscosity of the resin and make the resin easier to process and ensure that the fibers are well wetted; however, excess styrene tends to embrittle the cured material. The properties of UP resins can be largely varied by the selection of initial components and the choice of additives. This is true for both processability and properties of the molding compounds. Additives are often used as fillers and to lower the price.