By Kai Nielsen (auth.), William Horosz, Tad S. Clements (eds.)

The cross-disciplinary reports during this quantity are of detailed curiosity simply because they hyperlink human goal to the current debate among faith and the method of secularization. If that discuss is to be an inventive one, the suggestion of the 'human orderer' has to be similar considerably either to the sacred and secular geographical regions. actually, if guy weren't a purposive being, he might have neither non secular nor secular difficulties. questions on origins and future, divine purposiveness and the order of human improvement, wouldn't come up as themes of human obstacle. it is going to look, then, that few could deny the very fact of man's purposiveness in lifestyles, that the pursuit of those reasons constitutes the dramas of historical past and tradition. but the case is in a different way. For, touching on 'purposes' itself, commonly divergent, even antithetical, perspectives were held. the typical guy has mistrusted its counsel for objective, a lot too usually, 'changes its mind'. Its fluctuations and eccentric nature are an excessive amount of even for logic. The sciences have pointed out objective with the non-public lifestyles and seen it as a functionality of the topic self. accordingly that they had no use for it in medical process and aim wisdom. The religions of the area have used goal in its holistic experience, for reasons of creating grandious platforms of non secular totality and for pointing out the final word targets in man's destiny.

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It may be true that life will only have meaning for them if these conditions are met, but this does not establish that life will thus lack meaning unless these conditions are met. That is to say, it may be found significant by the vast majority of people, including most non-evasive and reflective people, when such conditions are met and it may be the case that everyone should find life meaningful under such conditions. It is not the case that there is some general formula in virtue of which we can say what the meaning of life is, but it still remains true that men can through their purposive activity give their lives meaning and indeed find meaning in life in the living of it.

In attempting to make such an articulation, the most crucial thing is not to wrestle with theological considerations about the contingency of the world or eternal life, but to articulate a comprehensive normative social and political philosophy in accordance with which we could set forth at least some of the conditions of a non-alienated life not simply for a privileged few but for mankind generally. We need to show in some general manner what such a life would look like and we need to attempt again, and with a reference to contemporary conditions, what Marx so profoundly attempted, namely, to set out the conditions that could transform our inegalitarian, unjust, vulgar and - as in countries such as South Africa and the United States - brutal capitalist societies into truly human societies.

46. , 'Paul Ricoeur's Phenomenology of Evil', International Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 4, December 1969, 572-589. 45 religious symbolism by its function, not by its intention. Phenomenology entertains the question of the truth of symbols in so far as the intention calls for fulfillment. For psycho-analysis the symbolism is an illusion and nothing more than it. Phenomenology of religion looks upon the symbols as expressing man's relation to the Sacred, for Freud they express the 'return of the repressed'.

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