By C Woodings
Regenerated Cellulose Fibres offers complete assurance of the chemistry, physics, procedure expertise, functions, and markets for man-made cellulosic fibres. It examines the homes and manufacture of viscose rayon, cuppramonium rayon, and the recent solvent-spun fibres and considers their courting with the usual and artificial fibres. This evaluation of the single actually clearly recyclable fibres and of the producing recommendations less than improvement can be of curiosity to execs in cloth creation, study and improvement, production chemists and fabric technologists.
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Extra resources for Regenerated Cellulose Fibres (Woodhead Fibre Series)
Pulp Paper Internat, 1977 19(6) 53–55. 20 H Sixta and A Borgards, ‘New technology for the production of high-purity dissolving pulps’, Das Papier, 1999 53(4) 220–234. 21 Anon, ‘1977–78 World pulp, paper & board industry at a glance’, Pulp Paper Internat, 1979 21(8) 22–23. 22 Anon, ‘1997–98 The world’s pulp, paper & board industry: production and trade’, Pulp Paper Internat, 1999 41(7) 12–13. 23 M Diesen, ‘Economics of the pulp and paper industry’, in Papermaking Science and Technology, ed. J Gullichsen, Jyväskylä, The Finnish Paper Engineers’ Association and TAPPI, 1998, (Book I), pp 102–124.
Viscose (or rayon) still enjoys the unique position of being the most versatile of all artificial fibres. This has resulted from an ability to engineer the fibre chemically and structurally in ways that take advantage of the properties of the cellulose from which it is made. Over the past 100 or so years the viscose process has undergone many refinements. However, the basic chemistry is still the same. Through this route short-fibre cellulose (wood pulp) is converted in a series of controlled and coordinated steps to a spinnable solution (dope) and then into longer filaments which may be precisely controlled in terms of length, denier, physical properties and cross-sectional shape.
The shift toward a greater proportion of C6 is due to a combination of ‘trans-xanthation’ (CS2 coming off the C2 and C3 positions and rexanthating at C6), and losses of CS2 from the C2 and C3 positions to form more stable ‘by-products’ with hemi and soda. Clearly, for the transxanthation mechanism, CS2 is also able to rexanthate a previously unxanthated part of the chain, and this also helps to make the cellulose better solvated. The viscose process 49 The degree of xanthation and the evenness of xanthation are measured by determining the concentration of salt solution required to precipitate the xanthate from viscose.