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The processes can be carried out by means of production lines which transform without break the fibre delivered by the spinnerets as far as the end-phases (continuous single-phase lines) or by means of lines in which the flow of the fibrous material is interrupted after spinning and is fed in a subsequent step (as from drawing) as far as the lines of final conversion (discontinuous two-phase lines). Continuous single-phase lines Continuous single-phase lines are used for the production of fibres, in which the flow speed of the material can be balanced through the various transformation phases; a typical application of these lines is the wet spinning process (for acrylic and viscose fibre spinning), but their use has also been recently extended to the compact spinning process for thermoplastic polymers.

Discontinuous fibres (tow and staple fibre) This production takes place in plants which have a conception completely different from those designed for the production of continuous filaments. The basic concept is to obtain from spinnerets a high number of parallel filaments (spinning tow or tow) to be delivered to subsequent textile processes (Fig. 17B). The tow must therefore be considered as an intermediate step in the production line of discontinuous fibres which are designed to feed subsequent textile processes (spinning and nonwoven sectors); it is characterized by a considerable linear mass (up to 150 ktex) and is composed of filaments with the same range of counts as the standard range for staple fibres (from a 0,4 dtex micro-fibre to 17 dtex staple fibre for carpeting).

Direct twisting, owing to quality and productivity reasons, tends to replace, in the production of tyre cord and of industrial twines, the traditional two-stage technique made up by the twisting of parallel single yarns and by a subsequent throwing (of 2 or more doubled yarns) with same number of turns in opposite direction. The twists imparted to the yarn are the result of the ratio between spindle speeds (t/min) and take-up speed (m/min): the machines can work at 10,000 t/min with feed/take-up bobbins weighing up to 10-15 kg; the yarn counts used for technical uses range from 940 to 2100 dtex, the inserted twists from 150 to 600 t/m.

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