By Alka L. Gupta

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Terephthalicacid 1 [-O-CH,-CHX-OJ-©-L Polyethylene glycol terephthalate The polyethylene glycol terephthalate is a highly crystalline and rigid copolymer, which is difficult to process due to the presence of a large number of para linked aromatic rings in its chain backbone. When a small amount of dimethyl isophthalate is mixed into the reaction mixture, it forms a copolymer or mixed polyester which consists of para linkages along with meta linkages in the structure. This mixed polyester also contains reduced chain rigidity and crystallinity.

Whereas in copolycondensation reaction, reactants are more than a single pair and resulting in a copolymer. If A and B are functional groups capable of undergoing condensation reactions, the simple polycondensation and co-polycondensation can be shown as follows: In simple polycondensation reaction: A -R-A+ B-R'-B ~ A -R-AB-R'-B + Byproduct In co-polycondensation reaction : A -R-A+ B-R'-B+A -R"-A ~ A -R-AB-R"-BA -R"-A+ Byproduct Mixed polyamides and mixed polyesters are well known examples of co-polycondensation.

In this electron pair displacement process, the negatively charged ion pushes the 1t electron pair of the monomer double bond down to sigma electron level. In termination process, some strong ionic substances are added deliberately. In ionic polymerisation, termination is not usually a spontaneous process. If some substances are not added, the reaction proceeds till all the monomer molecule is consumed. Thus, if there is no more monomer is left for polymerisation, the carbanions at the chain ends remain active which may initiates the polymerisation when a fresh monomer is added.

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