By William H. Hallenbeck, Kathleen M. Cunningham-Burns (auth.)

The impetus for this publication got here from quite a few requests via private and non-private businesses and voters for info concerning the human wellbeing and fitness results of pes­ ticide exposures. now we have attempted to bring together a comparatively entire, concise sum­ mary of the extreme and persistent wellbeing and fitness results and the toxicology of insecticides in a layout that offers speedy and simple entry. This e-book used to be written to deal with the wishes of the next teams: clinical and public health and wellbeing pros, tox­ icologists, environmentalists, business hygienists, regulators, manufacturers and clients of insecticides, public curiosity advocates, and the criminal occupation. Acknowledgments we're indebted to Mr. Christopher J. Wiant, leader of the Environmental Chemistry component of the Illinois division of Public healthiness. The monetary help supplied through his place of work was once crucial in generating this ebook. we're additionally indebted to Dr. Charles Benbrook, former employees member, and consultant George E. Brown, Chairman of the Subcommittee on leave­ ment Operations, study and overseas Agriculture of the Committee on Agri­ tradition, usa residence of Representatives, for his or her counsel in receive­ ing pesticide toxicity info. within the Freedom of data workplace, place of work of Pesticide courses of the USA Environmental safety corporation, the persistence and information of Therese Murtagh and Virginia Salzman in acquiring files are preferred. Of the varied people who participated within the creation of this publication, the subsequent benefit precise reputation for the standard in their study, modifying, and significant abilities: Mark Loafman, Sue Ramirez, Steve Smith, Sally Burns, and Denise Steurer.

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Chlorothalonil inhibits specific NAD-thiol dependent glycolytic and respiratory enzymes. Dichlobenil is frequently mixed with dalapon or bromacil. Active Ingredients bromoxynil bromoxynil octanoate chlorothalonil dichlobenil ioxynil 26 Bipyridyls Bipyridyls Class of Active Ingredients Use: herbicides Exposure Effects dehydration dermal: irritation, erythema, discoloration, fingernail softening and loss diarrhea dysphagia hematemesis hemorrhage (brain, nose) hepatic: necrosis, jaundice, fatty; elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH, and alkaline phosphatase mucous membrane irritation and ulceration (oral, pharyngeal, esophageal, gastroenteric) nausea renal/urinary: tubular necrosis, albuminuria, pyuria, anuria/ oliguria; elevated serum BUN and creatinine respiratory: irritation, chest pain, hyaline membrane formation, cough, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage Death due to renal failure Additional Exposure Effects of Individual Bipyridyls Diquat: Paraquat: gastoenteric congestion abdominal pain lung consolidation adrenal necrosis weight loss anorexia convulsions cyanosis EKG disturbances eye: conjunctivitis, corneal opacity gastroenteri tis hypotension myocarditis peripheral nerve degeneration respiratory: loss of surfactant, proliferation of connective tissue in alveolar space, dyspnea, inflammatory infiltrates, pulmonary fibrosis (rapid and progressi ve ) rhinorrhagia smooth muscle atrophy spleen hemorrhage stomatitis BipyridyJs 27 Additional Exposure Effects of Individual Bipyridyls (continued) Paraquat (continued) tachycardia vomiting Death due to cardiac, hepatic, or respiratory failure Suspected Effects Diquat: anorexia 3(2752) cataracts 1,9(559),23 convulsions 3(2753) dermal thickening, scabbing 9(559) dyspnea 3(2752) dystrophic changes in the heart 3(2755) GI distension 5(391) hyperexcitability 5(391) hypothermia 3(2752) light reflex absent 3(2752) lung cell swelling and desquamation 9(559) muscle twitching 3(2753) mutagenesis 27 prenatal damage 3(2756), 9(560), 23,27 reproductive system effects 5(343) thickening of interalveolar septa and peribronchial lymph tissue 9(559), and inflammatory changes in peribronchial and perivascular connective tissue 3(2755) Paraquat: ataxia 9(543) convulsions 9(543) hyperexcitability 9(543) mutagenesis 27 postnatal damage 3(2755,2756) prenatal damage 3(2756), 5(401), 27 reproductive system effects 5(343) tearing 3(2752) weight loss 9(543) Toxicology Bipyridyls are metabolized to free radicals that may deplete NADPH and damage cell membranes.

Benzoic Acids Active and Inert Ingredients benzoic acid chloramben chlorthiamid DCPA dicamba fenac TBA TCBA (TBA) terephthalic acid (DCPA) 2,3,6-trichlorobenzoic acid (TBA) inert ingredient active ingredient active ingredient active ingredient active ingredient active ingredient active ingredient active ingredient active ingredient active ingredient 23 24 Benzonitriles Benzonitriles Class of Active Ingredients Use: fungicides, herbicides Ioxynil Acute Exposure Effects: hyperemia of all organs edema of the lungs and brain Ioxynil and Bromoxynil Chronic Exposure Effects: dizziness elevation (transient) of aldolase, creatinine phosphokinase, LDH, and SGOT headache hyperthermia Dichlobenil Acute and Chronic Exposure Effects: dermatitis muscle pain sweating thirst vomiting weakness weight loss Suspected Effects: anorexia 23 hematuria 23 hepatomegaly 9(541), 23 jaundice 23 leukocyte infiltration around central veins 23 postnatal damage 23 renal hypertrophy 9(541),23 reproductive system effects 23 Chlorothalonil Acute Exposure Effects: dermatitis, eye irritation Suspected Effects: ataxia 23 carcinogenesis 11(326) dermal: edema, erythema, sensitization 23 DNA repair interference 23 growth suppression 22, 23 postnatal damage 23, 36 prenatal damage 22, 23 renal: hypertrophy, nephritis 23, 36 Benzonitriles 25 Toxicology Toxicity may be due to the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and inhibition of electron transport.

Skeletal muscle damage is manifest as myoglobinuria and creatinuria. Additional Information Chlorophenoxys have been contaminated with the dioxin 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is a suspected teratogen, embryotoxin, carcinogen, and cocarcinogen, and may cause impaired cell-mediated immunity and aplastic anemia. In humans it has been associated with polyneuropathy, nystagmus, liver dysfunction, and enzyme imbalances leading to hirsutism, impotence, infertility, and chloracne 6(187-229).

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