By R. Arnon (auth.), Professor Dr. Hilary Koprowski, Professor Dr. Fritz Melchers (eds.)
The humoral reaction of the immune process to a overseas antigen frequently calls for the popularity of 2 antigenic determinants. the only, referred to as the service, is famous via T-Iymphocytes, the opposite, known as the hapten, by way of B-Iympho cytes. hence, T - and B-Iymphocytes proliferate, B-Iymphocytes produce hapten-specific antibodies, and the process develops reminiscence to the antigens. It was once lengthy inspiration that antigens may shape a bridge to mediate the cooperation of T - and B-Iymphocytes. in spite of the fact that, it now looks that antigens are damaged all the way down to fragments which then act as service determinants for T -lymphocytes. The cells which initially procedure antigen are known as an tigen-presenting cells. they've got phagocytic homes. they could soak up and degrade antigens, in terms of seasoned teins to peptides. The peptides of protein antigens reappear at the floor of the antigen-presenting cells, the place they need to turn into linked to membrane proteins encoded through genes of the foremost histocompatibility complicated (MHC) to be able to be famous by means of T-Iymphocytes. To turn on helper T-Iym phocytes which cooperate in antibody responses, MHC type II molecules must be expressed at the floor of the antigen-presenting cells. as soon as T -lymphocytes have be come activated, they're able to cooperate with B cells.
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Perivascular round cell infiltrates were restricted to the central nervous system and found primarily in the subependymal area, under the third ventricle, and in scattered sites in the midbrain and forebrain. This study represented the first direct evidence to support the hypothesis that molecular mimicry can cause autoimmune disease. Furthermore, it indicated a role of virus infection in the triggering and production of antibodies and lymphocytes with the potential of cross-reacting with a biologically important self protein in vivo.
Annu Rev Biochem 47:251-276 Cornette JL, Cease KB, Margalit H, Spouge JL, Berzofsky JA, DeLisi C (1986) Hydrophobicity scales and computational techniques for detecting amphipathic structures in proteins. In preparation Corradin GP, Juillerat MA, Vita C, Engers HD (1983) Fine specificity of a BALB/c T cell clone directed against beef apo cytochrome c. Mol Immunol 20: 763-768 DeLisi C, Berzofsky JA (1985) T cell antigenic sites tend to be amphipathic structures. Proc Nat! Acad Sci USA 82: 7048-7052 DeLisi C, Cornette J, Margalit H, Cease K, Spouge J, Berzofsky JA (1986) The role of amphipathicity as an indicator ofT cell antigenic sites on proteins.
This problem can be overcome by using small enough synthetic peptides which would bear, at most, a single immunogenic determinant. This novel approach was possible ~ orB ~SUPPRESSION/ Fig. 1. M. E. Sercarz through the synthesis of desired peptides in areas of the molecule known to possess proliferation-inducing determinants. Solid phase procedures enables us to prepare a panel of peptides of differing lengths with variants having single amino acid substitutions. Another major advantage of synthetic procedures was the freedom from worry about proteolytic fragments from other regions of the whole protein contaminating peptide preparations, possibly invalidating certain conclusions.