By Henk G. Merkus, Gabriel M.H. Meesters
Particulate items make up round eighty% of chemical items, from all sectors. Examples given during this booklet comprise the development fabrics, superb ceramics and urban; the food, chocolate and ice cream; pharmaceutical, powders, clinical inhalers and sunlight display; liquid and powder paints. measurement distribution and the form of the debris supply for various functionalities in those items. a few capabilities are basic, others particular. normal services are powder circulate and require – on the commonplace particulate concentrations of those items – that the debris reason sufficient rheological habit in the course of processing and/or for product functionality. for that reason, this e-book addresses particle packing in addition to its relation to powder stream and rheological habit. in addition, common relationships to particle dimension are mentioned for e.g. colour and sensorial elements of particulate items. Product-specific functionalities are frequently suitable for related product teams. Particle dimension distribution and form offer, for instance, the subsequent functionalities:
- dense particle packing with regards to adequate power is needed in concrete development, ceramic items and pharmaceutical tablets
- sturdy sensorial homes (mouthfeel) to chocolate and ice cream
- potent dissolution, movement and compression homes for pharmaceutical powders
- sufficient hiding strength and potent coloring of paints for defense and the specified esthetical attraction of the objects
- enough safety of our physique opposed to solar mild through sunscreen
- potent particle shipping and deposition to wanted destinations for scientific inhalers and powder paints.
Adequate particle dimension distribution, form and porosity of particulate items need to be completed in an effort to succeed in optimal product functionality. This calls for enough administration of layout and improvement in addition to enough wisdom of the underlying ideas of physics and chemistry. additionally, flammability, explosivity and different overall healthiness risks from powders, in the course of dealing with, are taken into consideration. this can be priceless, considering that nice dangers could be concerned. In all features, the main proper parameters of the dimensions distribution (and particle form) need to be selected.
In this e-book, specialists within the varied product fields have contributed to the product chapters. this gives optimal details on what particulate features are so much correct for habit and function inside of designated commercial items and the way optimal effects could be received. It differs from different books within the approach that the severe features of other items are mentioned, in order that similarities and ameliorations should be pointed out. We belief that this method will result in stronger optimization in layout, improvement and caliber of many particulate products.
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Additional resources for Particulate Products: Tailoring Properties for Optimal Performance
17) where: ηm ¼ apparent viscosity of complex mixture η0 ¼ inherent viscosity without shear (also called consistency index) m ¼ shear rate sensitivity exponent (also called flow index) The equation indicates the non-linear relationship between shear stress and shear rate in non-Newtonian rheological behavior, meaning that the apparent viscosity depends upon the shear rate. This behavior is caused by the fact that threedimensional network ‘structures’ are present that may break down and rearrange during shear, depending upon the shear rate, particulate concentration and interparticle forces.
When the particles are much smaller and/or when they have a large aspect ratio, they tend not to flow at all: they are called cohesive. The fluidization of powders follows a similar trend where granular particles in the 20–200 μm size range fluidize readily and smaller particles together with ones of high aspect ratio, can cause difficulties. Geldart has categorized powders as cohesive, aeratable, bubbling and spouting; the latter two words mean that particles larger than about 200 μm show another ‘fluidization’ behavior.
Upon aeration of the powder, the powder bed expands considerably without bubbles being formed. A fluidized bed behaves like a liquid, in which the particles are subject to weak attractive forces . G. Merkus r -r , kg/m3 P F spoutable C A D B 1000 aeratable cohesive bubbling 100 10 100 Particle size, mm 1000 Fig. g. in catalytic reactions where it provides optimum contact between gaseous reactants and solid catalyst particles, in addition to adequate temperature control. Type B powders, again larger particles start forming bubbles as soon as the lifting force of the fluid velocity exceeds the particle mass.