By George McGhee
Charles Darwin famously concluded at the foundation of Species with a imaginative and prescient of "endless varieties most pretty" consistently evolving. greater than one hundred fifty years later many evolutionary biologists see now not unending kinds however the comparable, or very related, varieties evolving many times in lots of self reliant species lineages. A porpoise's fishlike fins, for instance, usually are not inherited from fish ancestors yet are independently derived convergent features. during this publication, George McGhee describes the ubiquity of the phenomenon of convergent evolution and connects it on to the notion of evolutionary constraint--the concept that the variety of evolutionary pathways to be had to existence aren't never-ending, yet fairly constrained. Convergent evolution happens on all degrees, from tiny natural molecules to whole ecosystems of species. McGhee demonstrates its ubiquity in animals, either herbivore and carnivore; in crops; in ecosystems; in molecules, together with DNA, proteins, and enzymes; or even in minds, describing problem-solving habit and team habit because the items of convergence. for every species instance, he offers an abbreviated record of the key nodes in its phylogenetic type, permitting the reader to work out the evolutionary courting of a bunch of species that experience independently developed a comparable trait by way of convergent evolution. McGhee analyzes the function of useful and developmental constraints in generating convergent evolution, and considers the clinical and philosophical implications of convergent evolution for the predictability of the evolutionary approach.