By Francisco Aboitiz Dr., Juan Montiel Dr. (auth.)
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Additional info for Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Telencephalon, with Special Reference to the Mammalian Neocortex
1994; Güntürkün 2005) and between the arcopallium (archistriatum) and the cortical frontal eye ﬁelds of mammals (Knudsen et al. 1995). 4 The Dorsal Cortex of Reptiles: Subicular and Neocortical Characteristics The recapitulationist hypothesis has been largely based on the comparison between avian and mammalian brains. However, in reptiles the situation is slightly more complicated, as it has been argued that lemnothalamic systems reaching the dorsal cortex are not strictly comparable to those in mammals (see MartínezGarcía 2003; Guirado 2003).
Jawed vertebrates originat as a sister group of osteostracans. a clade of monorhin ostracoderms (Gess et al. 2006). One of the most important advances among primitive vertebrates was the origin of jaws, allowing a truly predatory way of life. The earliest jawed ﬁshes appear in the lower Silurian period. These are called placoderms, but are not closely related to modern cartilaginous or bony ﬁsh. Most were benthonic and probably poor swimmers, despite the clear presence of pectoral ﬁns. They had no teeth but rather bony plates in the margin of their jaws.
12 Karten’s hypothesis (1969, 1997) of the equivalent circuit in the mammalian neocortex and the avian dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR). I, II, III, IV, V, VI represent distinct neocortical layers; Arc, arcopallium; En, entopallium (a component of the nidopallium); H, hyperpallium; N, nidopallium; P, pulvinar; R, nucleus rotundus (Karten 1997; Nauta and Karten 1970; Shimizu and Karten 1993; Veenman et al. 1995; Wild 1997; see Fig. 12). Recent studies indicate that avian areas of the DVR receiving sensory projections display markers such as RORB/Nr/1/2 and the voltagedependent potassium channel EAG2/KCNH5, which are also found in layer IV of primary sensory areas of the mammalian neocortex (Schaeren-Wiemers et al.