By E. I. Givargizov (auth.)

Present-day scienceand expertise became more and more in keeping with stories and functions of skinny movies. this is often especiallytrue of solid-state physics, semiconduc­ tor electronics, built-in optics, machine technological know-how, etc. In those fields, it will be significant to exploit filmswith an ordered constitution, especiallysingle-crystallinefilms, simply because actual phenomena and results in such movies are so much reproducible. additionally, energetic elements of semiconductor and different units and circuits are created, in general, in single-crystal our bodies. so far, single-crystallinefilms were commonly epitaxial (or heteroepitaxial); i.e., they've been grown on a single-crystalline substrate, and central tendencies, e.g., within the evolution of built-in circuits (lCs), were in accordance with carrying on with relief in characteristic measurement and raise within the variety of parts in keeping with chip. in spite of the fact that, because the dimension decreases into the submicrometer variety, technological and actual boundaries in built-in electronics develop into increasingly more serious. it's more often than not believed function measurement of approximately 0.1um could have a vital personality. In different phrases, the current two-dimensional ICs are expected to arrive their restrict of minimization within the close to destiny, and it truly is learned that additional elevate of packing density and/or capabilities could rely on third-dimensional integration. to resolve the matter, concepts for training of single-crystalline motion pictures on arbitrary (including amorphous) substrates are essential.

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3). For more details on martensitic as weH as related solid-solid transformations, see references 200-203 . 3. 1, it was noted that the molecular-kinetic theory of KosselStranski aHows determination of crystal shapes. Here, the issue of crystal shapes will be considered in more detail. , a body bounded by flat faces, straight edges, and point apices. This idea of crystal shapes as idealized geometrie bodies, however, needs some corrections that will take into account both thermodynamic and kinetic factors.

7). This means that orientations and reorientations of the crystallites by substrates (flat or, especially, patterned) should be strongly facilitated. 3). 3. 2. " In this ease, at the front of the transformation, atoms of a former erystalline phase are rearranged into a new lattiee so that there is no transport of the material over distanees exeeeding one lattiee parameter. " An example of such a transformation is that of lowtemperature, diamond-lattice gray u-Sn to high-temperature, tetragonal ß-Sn, the transition temperature being 13°C.

141) The rate is about 1 A/sec at 550°C and about 1 um/sec at 850°C, in any case being many orders of magnitude smaller than usual crystallization rates from melt. In addition, the growth rate is dependent on orientation and doping level. If an amorphous phase is formed on a single-crystal substrate, so-called "solidphase epitaxy" (SPE) can take place. Such a process is realized in both ion-implantamorphized(J42-147) and deposited amorphous semiconductors. (146-152) Usually, the process is conducted at relatively low temperatures, 500-600°C.

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