By F. Gerald Downing

Articulate first century Mediterranean society, Jewish and Christian integrated, expressly favoured harmonious order in society, in contributors, in verbal exchange, and in concept. Its universal foundation was once the patriarchal family members, the rule of thumb of legislation, rational strength of mind, and rational inspiration. but there has been additionally resistance to oppressive and unjust order in all spheres; and whereas legislation should be held educative, but there have been colossal first century evaluations of legislations, not only Paul’s, and knowledge that judicial approaches may be chaotic and biassed. Strands of such dissidence seem in Jesus and in Paul, with major relevance for any realizing of the early Christian movement(s) and modern Judaism(s) in Graeco-Roman context, but additionally with very important implications for any sensible reflections and alertness.

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Cf. Yonder Moynihan Gillihan, Civic Ideology, Organisation, and Law in the Rule Scrolls. , 408. 54 See Benjamin Kelly, Petitions, Litigation, and Social Control in Roman Egypt (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2012). Kelly refuses to extrapolate empire-wide, but specifically notes close analogies in Pliny’s correspondence, 330; on which, see further ch. 11, below. 1–11. 55 On “social dialect”, cf. G. Barclay, “Πνευματικος in the Social Dialect of Pauline Christianity” (2004, repr 2011), in idem, Pauline Churches, 205–216.

121, 1–2. G. Downing, Cynics and Christian Origins, 26–84; Cynics, Paul and the Pauline Churches, 26–54. 6. Humankind, the Universe and Deity For many, though not all, the practice of good order has divine support, and reflections on good order are articulated in metaphysics. 109 Dio can assume the following as a commonplace: Do you not see in the heavens as a whole and in the divine and blessed beings that dwell therein [the planets] an order and concord (τάξιν καὶ ὁμόνοιαν) and self-control which is eternal, and than which it is impossible to conceive anything either more beautiful or more august?

27 Linked with this is Dionysius’ admiration for the Roman practice (at least in the past, and in Italy) of admitting outsiders: There was yet a third policy of Romulus which the Greeks ought to have practised above all others, it being, in my opinion, the best of all political measures, as it laid the most solid foundation for the liberty of the Romans, and was no slight factor in raising them to their position of supremacy. 28 It is perhaps worth comparing Dio’s plea on behalf of the excluded ‘metek’ linen workers of Tarsus, long deprived of civic rights.

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