By Robert L. Carroll (auth.), Donald B. Brinkman, Patricia A. Holroyd, James D. Gardner (eds.)

This quantity celebrates the contributions of Dr. Eugene Gaffney to the learn of turtles, via a various and complementary selection of papers that showcases the most recent learn on the most interesting teams of reptiles. a mixture of centred and overview papers offers with a number of points of the evolutionary historical past of turtles, together with embryonic improvement, origins, early diversification, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeography. in addition it comprises studies on very important yet poorly understood fossil turtle assemblages, offers ancient views on turtle study, and records illness and edition in turtles. With its wide scope, consisting of descriptions of fabric and new taxa from Australia, Asia, and Europe, in addition to North and South the USA, this paintings may be an important source for an individual drawn to the morphology and evolution of turtles. “This volume’s breadth of time, geography, and taxonomic assurance makes it a big contribution to the sector and a ‘must have’ for all vertebrate paleontologists.”, James F. Parham, California nation college, CA, united states “A entire and sweeping evaluate of turtle evolution by means of the head specialists within the box that may curiosity all people all for those particular reptiles.” Jason S. Anderson, collage of Calgary, Canada “An valuable addition to the literature that covers the total spectrum of methods towards figuring out the evolution of those noble creatures.” Ann C. Burke, Wesleyan collage, CT , united states “A really complete quantity that either the scholar of fossil turtles, in addition to the final reader attracted to those enigmatic creatures, will locate fascinating.” Tyler Lyson, Yale collage, CT, USA​

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Abbreviations used in this and subsequent illustrations: a angular, art articular, as astragalus; bo basioccipital, bs basisphenoid, co coronoid, CR carapacial ridge, d dentary, dep dorsal process of epiplastron, dsc dorsal process of scapula, ect ectopterygoid, ent entoplastron; eo, ex exoccipital, ep epiplastron, f frontal, fe femur, fi fibula, fm foramen magnum, gpep gular projection of epiplastron, hyo hyoplastron, hyp hypoplastron, il ilium, ipt interpterygoid vacuity, j jugal, ipt interpterygoid vacuity, l lacrimal, ldv last dorsal vertebra, m maxilla, meso 1 first mesoplastron, meso 2 second mesoplastron, n nasal, na naris, nc neural canal, nt neural tube, nu nuchal, opis opisthotic, p parietal, pal palatine, pf postfrontal, phyis posterolateral process of hypoischium, pm premaxilla, po postorbital, pp postparietal, pre prearticular, prf prefrontal, pro prootic, prp posterior ramus of pterygoid, ps parasphenoid, pt pterygoid, ptf post-temporal fenestra, q quadrate, qj quadratojugal, qrp quadrate ramus of pterygoid, sa surangular, so supraoccipital, sp splenial, sq squamosal, st supratemporal, sv1 1st sacral vertebra, t tabular, ti tibia, trpt transverse flange of pterygoid, ul ulna, v vomer, xi xiphiplastron Ancestral anapsids, Diapsida, and Synapsida, all known from the Late Pennsylvanian, are sufficiently similar to one another that they almost certainly had a single common ancestor, late in the Carboniferous, forming the basis of the taxon Eureptilia, as used by deBraga and Rieppel (1997).

Lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs are equivalent in sharing the absence of the unique factors involved in the development of the carapace and plastron of turtles. This subject will be discussed more fully after consideration of molecular means to analyse the phylogenetic position of turtles. Rieppel’s later book chapter on this subject (2008) continued to support a diapsid origin for turtles, but recognized problems of accounting for the origin of the carapace and plastron from any known group of early amniotes.

A, b Simplified, cross-sectional diagrams of adult tetrapods: a the derived turtle condition, in which the ribs extend laterally and dorsally above the shoulder girdle; b the primitive, non-chelonian condition, in which the ribs extend ventrally, around the trunk, and medial to the scapula. c, d Photographs of turtle embryos, showing position of the carapacial ridge, a developmental feature unique to turtles: c transverse section through the trunk; d lateral view of an entire turtle embryo, with carapacial ridge (CR) between the limb bud of the arm above and the rear limb bud below.

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