By Michael Ashby

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P ~ . . . ". o . (:~. ,a I . . . . . . . . . 7) . . '. . . . . . ~ 1 = , o o . -u.... 143), ,- " crcl/2 ,,. 1 . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . r . . . . 4 Density (Mg/m 3) . . . 6 . . . 8 . . . 1 . The compressive strength plotted against density for currently available metal foams. 7 Specific stiffness and strength Stiffness and strength at low weight are sought in many applications. Caution must be exercised here. If axial stiffness and strength are what is wanted, the proper measure of the first is E/p and of the second is Crc/p.

The indentation strength of foams is slightly larger than the uniaxial compressive strength because of the work done in tearing cell walls around the perimeter of the indenter and because of friction, but these contributions diminish as the indent diameter increases. 10 Surface strain mapping The strain field on the surface of a metallic foam resulting from thermomechanical loading can be measured using a technique known as surface strain mapping. The surfaces of cellular metals are irregular, with the cell membranes appearing as peaks and troughs, allowing in-situ optical imaging to be used to provide a map of surface deformation.

O. , ,. ~. ~. - . - . 0 -. . . . . . . . . . . ,,,, A,.. . . 8 1 Young'smodulus plotted against density for currently available metal foams. 6 shows Young's modulus, E, plotted against density p for available metal foams. For clarity, only some of the data have been identified. The numbers in parentheses are the foam density in Mg/m 3. The broken lines Properties of metal foams 49 show the indices E/p, El/2/p and E1/3/p. Their significance is discussed in Chapter 5.

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