By Margrit Hanbücken, Pierre Müller, Ralf B. Wehrspohn

Bringing jointly specialists from a few of the disciplines concerned, this primary accomplished review of the present point of pressure engineering at the nanoscale is exclusive in combining the theoretical basics with simulation tools, version structures and characterization thoughts.
Essential interpreting for researchers in microelectronics, optoelectronics, sensing, and photonics.

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This is equivalent to the undulation wavenumber k ¼ jkj being less than the critical value kc ¼ 2ð1 þ nÞð1ÀnÞs20 =ðEcÞ. 9)), whereas the excess energy due to the increased area is independent of l. 12) indicates that an undulation with a given wavelength is all the more easy to create that s 0 is high and all the more difficult that surface energy is high. This analysis can be generalized. The point is that the stress must be nonhydrostatic. The instability of a solid subjected to such stresses with respect to morphological perturbations of its surface is often called ATG (Asaro–Tiller–Grinfel’d) [29, 30].

In a simple equilibrium picture, the transition between elastic and plastic relaxation is governed by the total energy of the system. It is thus important to analyze elastic strain relaxation in the coherent case. 5. We consider mismatched heterostructures formed by depositing a homogeneous layer L of uniform thickness t (0 < z < t) onto a semi-infinite planar substrate S (z < 0), both being single crystals. 2, one may consider that in its intrinsic stress-free state, L results from an elastic distortion of S, described by the stress-free strain that transforms the intrinsic lattice of S into that of L [8, 24].

At variance with quantum dots, which have inclined facets and nanometric heights, freestanding NWs may extend perpendicularly to the substrate with a uniform diameter and over potentially unlimited lengths (in practice, several microns are easily reached). These 1D nanostructures have remarkable physical properties and many potential applications. For a misfitting layer at the top of a NW, lateral relaxation should be even easier than for a quantum dot, since the effective substrate has the same finite diameter instead of being laterally infinite.

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