By S. Schwartz

This e-book issues measuring analyzing talents. it's not intended to be a compre­ hensive survey of examining study or a overview of all attainable ways to studying dimension (although substantial realization is given to either subjects). as a substitute, the aim of this publication is to give a coherent, theoretically dependent method of measuring analyzing competence. the facility to degree a phenomenon is a crucial prerequisite for clinical research. As Lord Kelvin acknowledged, "One's wisdom of technological know-how starts while he can degree what he's conversing approximately and convey it in numbers." regrettably, not only any numbers will do. shortly on hand examining exams supply their clients with a plethora of numbers-age degrees, percentiles, grade equivalents-but their clinical price is questionable. the matter is that there's extra to clinical size than basically assigning numbers to arbitrarily selected behaviors. clinical size happens simply in the confines of a conception, and so much studying assessments are atheoretical. fresh years have witnessed an explosive progress in studying research.

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Extra info for Measuring Reading Competence: A Theoretical-Prescriptive Approach

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Not all research in the area of visual problems is uncontrolled or uninterpretable. Careful researchers have found relationships between specific visual defects and reading disorders . Stein and Fowler (1982) , for example, found poor eye movement control among "dyslexics," and Nyman and Laurinen (1982) found poor spatial vision among their dyslexic sample. There is also clear evidence that eye movements during reading are less systematic among reading disabled than among normal readers (Lester, Benjamin, & Stagg, 1978) .

Syndromes of Acquired Dyslexia" Syndromes Symptoms Phonemic (deep) dyslexia Cannot read nonwords , makes semantic errors Phonolog ical dyslexia Difficulty reading nonwords or function words Dejerine 's syndrome (Letter-by-letter dyslexia) Can only read by first identifying each letter Semantic (surface dyslexia) Difficulty reading irregularly spelled words "Adapted from "Neuropsychological Approaches to the Study of Reading" by K. E. 1 , British Journal of Psychology, 72, 151-174. Copyright 1981 by the British Psychological Society.

Both norm-referenced and criterion-referenced measures were developed, but, as already noted in Chapter 1, these tests were (and remain) largely atheoretical devices. LEARNING DISABILITIES The past 30 years have seen the differentiation into subcategories of children who have trouble in school. Instead of considering all such children to be mentally retarded, subgroups of children with specific problems have been identified (with varying degrees of precision) . There are several currently used definitions of learning disabilities.

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