By György Berencsi III
The human foetus is separated from the maternal blood by means of the syncytiotrophoblast prompted by way of endogeneous human retrovirus-encoded proteins. This barrier is a hugely constructed one, which suppors apical-basolateral delivery of maternal idiotype and anti-idiotype IgG, IgG-virus complexes. The selective maternal-fetal shipping of epitope- and paratope-bearing entities can effect the developping fetal immune process while pregnant. The bidirectional maternal-fetal move of cells are of much more value while pregnant. Maternal cells with latent viruses delivery viruses with out impairment of fetal improvement. Cells with premaligant and malignant genetic transformation also are transported to the fetus. Fetal and neonatal tumours are initiated by way of such cells even with the antitumour strength of fetal organism. at the contary, the fetal cells fix maternal tissue injouries and continue to exist within the organisms of the recipients for many years. those own new outcomes for the neonatal immunity and organ transplatation surgery.
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Extra resources for Maternal Fetal Transmission of Human Viruses and their Influence on Tumorigenesis
2011). TREG cells have demonstrated their ability to efficiently control autoimmune diseases. The number of TREG cells decreases in several autoimmune diseases, and adoptive transfer of purified TREG cells improves the autoimmune disorders (Crispin et al. 2003; Tang et al. 2004). Meanwhile, several studies have reported that TREG frequencies in circulation increase during normal early pregnancy, peaking during the second trimester and then declining postpartum, and decrease in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion URSA (Yang et al.
CD4+ interleukin (IL)-17A+ T (Th17) cells and CD4+CD25brightFoxp3+ regulatory T (TREG) cells in peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry; IL-17 concentrations in cell culture supernates were quantitatively determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbtion assay; and IL-17A positive cells in decidua tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry (Bettelli et al. 2006; Schumacher et al. 2007). Low serum interleukin 17 concentration was found to be associated with preterm birth (Hee et al. 2011). Human gammadelta T cells expressing the Vg2Vd2 T cell-receptors (TCR) play important roles in immune responses to microbial pathogens by monitoring prenyl pyrophosphate isoprenoid metabolites.
Immature NK cells were detected at the fetomaternal interface in NOD/SCID mice. These cells were hyposensitive to the stimulation of selected TLR agonists. Such a status seemed to be beneficial for the maintenance of pregnancy (Lin et al. 2009). In the human placenta, however, TLR ligand-exposed trophoblasts, compared to controls, secrete more proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines to enhance immune cell migration (Koga et al. 2009). At term, TLR activation by a yet unknown ligand may lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, 6 and 8) and prostaglandin synthesis resulting in cervical ripening, membrane rupture, and uterine contractions resulting in the induction of labor.