By Philip V. Mladenov

The marine surroundings is the most important, most crucial, and but so much mysterious habitat on our planet. It includes greater than ninety nine% of the world's residing area, produces half its oxygen, performs a severe function in regulating its weather, and helps a remarkably assorted and exquisitely tailored array of existence types, from microscopic viruses, micro organism, and plankton to the biggest latest animals.

In this specified Very brief creation, biologist Philip Mladenov offers a finished review of marine biology, providing a travel of marine existence and marine methods that levels from the polar oceans to tropical coral reefs, and from coastline mollusks to deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Mladenov additionally seems to be at a few elements that pose an important risk to the marine setting and to a lot of its lifestyles forms-threats comparable to overfishing, coastal improvement, plastic pollutants, oil spills, nutrient toxins, the unfold of unique species, and the emission of weather altering greenhouse gases. in the course of the publication he effectively weaves round the rules of marine biology a dialogue of the human affects at the oceans and the threats those pose to our welfare.

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10 The site of the Hurrian city of Nuzi in 26. Surviving only as fragments, these textiles were woven before 1450 by the Muscogee people, who were part of the Mississippian culture that built earthwork mounds. The fragments were found at a major ceremonial site, Spiro Mounds in Oklahoma, which has suffered from looters. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. 26 T a n g i b l e T h i n g s 27. Two cuneiform tablets with clay envelopes are grain receipts from 1500 BCE. They illustrate a Mesopotamian method of preventing fraud: The same text is written on both the tablet and its enclosing envelope.

Houghton Library. 22. A tiger skull, a Japanese sword, a book made of palm leaves, an artist’s book of metal kitchen tools, a riding-whip handle, a hundred-year-old tortilla, and the tapeworm of a Boston Brahmin are some of the items clustered in this “muddled” case in the 2011 exhibition Tangible Things at the Collection of Historical Scientific Instruments, Harvard University. Introduction 19 23. Although this armillary ring sundial made in Lucca, Italy, in 1764 was displayed as a “thing out of place” to be sorted, it belonged to a rich traveler who could use it to find true north, his location, and the time at any latitude.

50 Oakes Ames, born in 1874, grew up in North Easton. His father, Oliver Ames, a former governor of Massachusetts, had an interest in botany. Ames graduated from Harvard in 1898, joining the faculty in 1899. 51 Ames devoted his career at Harvard to Orchidaceae, first in the Botanic Garden (1899–1922), then as curator and later director of the Botanic Museum (1923–45). He simultaneously held faculty positions, rising to Arnold Professor of Botany in 1932. He retired from the faculty in 1941 and the Botanic Museum in 1945.

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