By Tor P. Scultz, Wolfgang G. Glasser, Wolfgang Glasser, Tor P. Schultz
content material: Lignin chemistry, know-how, and usage : a quick background / Joseph L. McCarthy and Aminul Islam --
the character of lignin : a special view / okay. Forss and K-E. Fremer --
Monolignol compositional determinants in loblolly pine : fragrant amino acid metabolism and linked rate-limiting steps / Hendrik van Rensburg, Aldwin M. Anterola, Lanfang H. Levine, Laurence B. Davin, and Norman G. Lewis --
Genetic engineering of poplar lignins : impression of lignin alteration on kraft pulping performances / C. Lapierre, B. Pollet, M. Petit-Conil, G. Pilate, C. Leplé, W. Boerjan, and L. Jouanin --
Lignin-polysaccharide interactions in woody vegetation / Richard F. Helm --
Structural heterogeneity of hardwood lignin : features of end-wise lignin fraction / Keko Hori and Gyosuke Meshitsuka --
Molecular orbital calculations at the interplay of veratryl alcohol with the lignin peroxidase energetic website / Thomas Elder and David C. younger --
Lignin impact on angiosperm sapwood susceptibility to white-rot fungal colonization : a speculation / Tor P. Schultz and Darrel D. Nicholas --
class of lignin in response to chemical and molecular constitution / Wolfgang G. Glasser --
an outline of chemical degradation equipment for choosing lignin condensed devices / Y.-Z. Lai, H. Xu, and R. Yang --
utilizing Raman spectroscopy to spot chromophores in lignin-lignocellulosics / U.P. Agarwal and R.H. Atalla --
restricting molecular weight of lignin from autocatalyzed organosolv pulping of hardwood / H.L. Hergert, G.C. Goyal, and J.H. Lora --
Structural research of dehydrogenation polymer (models of lignin) motion pictures on the air-water interface through neutron reflectivity / B. Cathala, N. Puff, V. Aguié-Béghin, R. Douillard, and B. Monties --
Comparative research of the lignins of cork from Quercus suber L. and wooden from Eucalyptus globulus L. through dry hydrogen iodide cleavage / L.G. Akim, N. Cordeiro, C. Pascoal Neto, and A. Gandini --
advertisement use of lignin-based fabrics / J.D. Gargulak and S.E. Lebo --
Synthesis of ¹⁴C-labelled 1-ethenylbenzene utilizing Wittig response and synthesis of graft copolymer of lignin and ¹⁴C-labelled 1-ethenylbenzene / Meng-Jiu Chen and John J. Meister --
Blends of biodegradable thermoplastics with lignin esters / Indrajit Ghosh, Rajesh ok. Jain, and Wolfgang G. Glasser --
Thermoplastics with very excessive lignin contents / Yan Li and Simo Sarkanen --
Plasma amendment of lignin / G. Toriz, F. Denes, and R.A. younger --
Chemistry of pulping: lignin reactions / Josef S. Gratzl and Chen-Loung Chen --
The interaction among oxygen-derived radical species within the delignification in the course of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide bleaching / Josef Gierer --
A comparability of the structural alterations happening in lignin in the course of Alcell and kraft pulping of hardwoods and softwoods / Ying Liu, Sandra Carriero, Kendall Pye, and Dimitris S. Argyropoulos --
A room-temperature [beta]-O-4 to [alpha]-O-4 rearrangement / D.L. Criss, T.H. Fisher, L.L. Ingram, Jr., D.J. Beard, and Tor P. Schultz --
Peracids in kraft pulp bleaching : earlier, current, and destiny / okay. Poppius-Levlin, A.-S. Jääskeläinen, A. Seisto, and A. Fuhrmann --
Chemical amendment of lignin-rich paper : light-induced adjustments of softwood and hardwood chemithermomechanical pulps: the impression of irradiation resource / Magnus Paulsson and Arthur J. Ragauskas --
research of ortho- and para-quinone chromophores in alkaline extraction level residual lignins / Michael Zawadzki, Troy Runge, and Arthur J. Ragauskas --
Chemical features of lignins extracted from softwood TMP after O₃ and CIO₂ therapy / D.R. Robert, M. Szadeczki, and D. Lachenal.
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Additional resources for Lignin: Historical, Biological, and Materials Perspectives
Freudenberg (74) apparently set forth the first formulation of the structure of cellulose in 1928. In 1933, Freudenberg (100) published a book with a chapter on lignin. Herein he suggested that lignin was a high polymer formed by dehydrogenation of coniferyl alcohol type monomers as suggested by Erdtman. He felt that lignin was a heteropolymer linked by ether and carbon-carbon bonds. Furthermore he felt that there were three or four types of structural units as happens with amino acid in proteins Around the end of the 1940's coniferyl alcohol became easily available through the reduction of ethyl ferulate by L1AIH4 (271).
Pearl (208) in 1949 secured similar evidence from the products of metal oxide oxidation of lignosulfonates. In 1935, King, Hibbert and Brauns (119) reported on organosolv lignins formed through methanolysis and ethanolysis. The soluble products of these reactions, Hibbert's ketones, were described in a series of papers with Cramer and Hunter (148), West (171), McGregor and Evans (176) and several others. These ketones were phenylpropane type molecules obtained in about 10% yield when wood was refluxed in acidic 3% methanol/ethanol solution.
In 1980, kraft pulping was interpreted in chemical terms by Gierer (452) as a competition between alkali-promoted degradation and condensation reactions. Cleavage of the various types of lignin bonds was attributed to three phases of kraft pulping. Similarities in the degradation mechanisms of lignins and carbohydrates were noted. Based on the results from extensive model studies, Gierer (486,487) in 1985 divided the chemical reactions involved in pulping and bleaching into nucleophilic and electrophilic categories.