By Joseph M. Powers

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Extra resources for Lecture Notes on Intermediate Thermodynamics

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08 September 2011, J. M. Powers. 3. 180) kJ . 9024 . 6 . 3939 kg kg kJ . 0 . 375. 197) CC BY-NC-ND. 08 September 2011, J. M. Powers. 38 CHAPTER 2. 369. 4 Losses • Turbine: These are typically the largest losses in the system. The turbine efficiency is defined by wt h3 − h4 η= = . 198) wts h3 − h4s Here h4s and wts are the enthalpy and work the working fluid would have achieved had the process been isentropic. Note this is for a control volume. • Pump: Pump losses are usually much smaller in magnitude than those for turbines.

15 . 429) kJ kg kJ kg kJ . 431) CC BY-NC-ND. 08 September 2011, J. M. Powers. 64 CHAPTER 2. 4: Iteration for T4 . 25 M P a. 99954 . 434) Now 3 → 4 is an isentropic expansion to state 4, which has the same volume as state 1; V1 = V4 . So the ideal gas law gives P4 V4 T4 P4 P1 P4 Pref P1 V1 , T1 T4 V1 , T1 V4 T4 V1 . 440) kJ kg K = F (T4 ). 1, this equation can be iterated until T4 is found. So T4 = 1288 K. 98 . 68 kg kg CC BY-NC-ND. 08 September 2011, J. M. Powers. 9. 552098. 224 kJ . 776 kJ . 58 kP a.

165451. CC BY-NC-ND. 08 September 2011, J. M. Powers. 3. 180) kJ . 9024 . 6 . 3939 kg kg kJ . 0 . 375. 197) CC BY-NC-ND. 08 September 2011, J. M. Powers. 38 CHAPTER 2. 369. 4 Losses • Turbine: These are typically the largest losses in the system. The turbine efficiency is defined by wt h3 − h4 η= = . 198) wts h3 − h4s Here h4s and wts are the enthalpy and work the working fluid would have achieved had the process been isentropic. Note this is for a control volume. • Pump: Pump losses are usually much smaller in magnitude than those for turbines.

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