By Gillian Clark

Overdue antiquity observed the barbarian invasions overrun the western Roman empire and Persian and Arab armies finish Roman rule over the jap and southern coasts of the Mediterranean. used to be past due antiquity hence in basic terms a time of decline?

In this vivid and compact advent, Gillian Clark sheds mild at the idea of overdue antiquity and the occasions of its time, displaying that this was once in truth a interval of significant transformation. past due antiquity observed Roman legislations codified, Christian creeds formulated, the Talmud compiled, and the Qur'an composed. If the Goths sacked town of Rome, the Vandals outfitted church buildings in Africa and Attila the Hun acquired an embassy from Constantinople. Anthony of Egypt and Simeon Stylites provided extraordinary new types of holiness, whereas Augustine and Basil and Benedict devised principles for monastic groups. past due vintage artists produced the mosaics of Ravenna and the 1st dome of Hagia Sophia. And it was once additionally the interval while emperors Diocletian within the 3rd century and Justinian within the 6th enacted huge and much-needed reforms of presidency.

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Perhaps it is surprising that Fontana was never created a cardinal, but he distinguished himself as apostolic commissary sent in 1252–53 to pacify the Romagna and then to oppose the tyrannical Staufen protégé Ezzelino da Romano. In 1256 Fontana raised an army to recapture Padua from Ezzelino, calling up ‘soldiers of Christ, St Peter and St Anthony’. 62 In the 1260s papal authority finally destroyed the Staufen and their allies in Italy. 63 The hope was – as before – that the papacy would be able to depend on a grateful and loyal dynasty in the south, to protect and to fight for, the interests of St Peter.

37 In fact none did so, and the management of the Third Crusade was assumed by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa – persuaded into the job by the same Cardinal Henri de Marcy – together with Richard I of England and Philip II of France. 39 Maybe it was partly because of the Fourth Crusade and its outcome that Innocent III and his successor Honorius III (pope 1216–27) tried to ensure that the next papally authorised ‘holy wars’ would be 14 ‘DUX ET PONTIFEX’ commanded by churchmen. This was demonstrated first in the campaign against the Cathar or Albigensian heresy in south-west France, which became a major extension of crusading warfare against enemies of the Church within Catholic Christendom.

In the course of the eleventh century lofty ideas were advanced concerning both the nature of papal authority and – as an inevitable aspect of this – ecclesiastical sanctions of warfare. There were of course earlier pronouncements on the superior nature of papal power. Gelasius I (pope 492–96) is credited with introducing the idea of the Church as a principality set above all earthly princes and the pope as the vicar not only of St Peter but of Christ himself. 12 These ideas, however strong in their implications for future wars, need not concern us at this point so much as two practical measures designed to ensure more effective papal authority, both of them the achievements of Nicholas II (pope 1059–61).

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