By Jérôme Lecoq
Héritée de l. a. culture old, fondée par Socrate, los angeles pratique philosophique est une méthode émergeante de développement group of workers, pratiquée tant en entreprise qu'auprès de particuliers. Conçu et rédigé par un jeune praticien, ce consultant présente l'histoire, les fondements et les usages de cette self-discipline, en s'appuyant sur de nombreux exemples et en proposant des exercices à faire soi-même.
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Reviewed via Alexa Forrester, Franklin & Marshall College
After the tumult of the decade -- a preemptive warfare in Iraq, a large-scale humanitarian obstacle in Darfur, the worldwide cave in of monetary markets, and heated political tensions inside of person international locations like Iran, Thailand and the U.S. -- Seumas Miller's the ethical Foundations of Social associations: A Philosophical research (MFSI) deals a well timed and thorough reaction to the query: what may still our social associations be and do?
Taken as an entire, Miller's finished normative idea of social associations is undeniably useful, either in its readiness to be marshaled to diagnose and increase our present associations, and its skill to ahead modern debates in utilized social philosophy. It makes a weighty contribution to ongoing inquiry into how participation in advanced social structures impacts the character and content material of our person ethical duties. however it does this with out overstating the ontology of those structures. Miller recognizes that the which means and results of our activities can't be understood with out figuring out the actual collectives in which these activities are authored. however, based on him, the reins of business enterprise nonetheless and continuously lie within the arms of individuals.
The publication is split into sections. within the first part, Miller lays out his common thought; within the moment part, he makes use of this thought to judge, and the place applicable, criticize modern associations, together with the media, universities, monetary agencies, and the govt as a meta-institution.
The theoretical half MFSI attracts on Miller's formerly released paintings within the components of collective motion idea and ethical accountability. He calls his conception a teleological, individualist, normative idea of social associations. it's 'teleological' within the experience that it takes social associations to be demarcated and partly outlined when it comes to the collective ends they serve. it's 'individualist' within the feel that it rejects the idea that associations are collective brokers, insisting as an alternative that associations are not anything over and above contributors and the relationships among these contributors. protecting this declare, Miller attends to how ethical brokers can separately carry leads to this type of means that they thereby carry, together, a collective finish, and the way institutional roles and mechanisms bind teams of people into associations. the place applicable, he deals convincing responses to those that guard kinds of collectivism. ultimately, Miller's idea is a 'normative' idea of social associations simply because, he contends, the collective ends that delineate a variety of social associations needs to be collective items (or to serve collective goods).
Taking a normative stance that's refreshingly pluralistic, Miller continues that those collective items are a number of, and can't be captured through a unmarried monistic idea of worth. He explores the plural ethical foundations of associations in bankruptcy 2, which come with aggregated needs-based rights and joint ethical rights, e. g. , to existence and to autonomy. He additionally highlights how social associations have a normative size produced from rights and tasks that come up merely next to associations. In Chapters three, four and five, he investigates the strategies of person autonomy, collective accountability, and corruption in gentle of his account. whereas those sections of the e-book show the remarkable succeed in of Miller's concept and extra make clear the stakes of his view, now not all the arguments are conclusive.
Chapter four makes an attempt to explicate the connection among institutional and person ethical legal responsibility and accountability. To this finish, a part of the bankruptcy is dedicated to recapitulating and increasing a previous debate with David Copp. On Copp's collectivist perception of ethical accountability, an establishment could have a given legal responsibility or accountability whether none of the institution's constituent individuals has an analogous legal responsibility or accountability. In a 2007 paper, Copp makes use of a sequence of situations to demonstrate the opportunity of such collective institutional accountability.  Miller examines each one of those instances in flip and, drawing at the assets constructed in prior chapters, reveals flaws in every one (pp. 142-153). yet no longer all of those circumstances pop out truly in Miller's favor.
For instance, Miller examines Copp's case of a primary minister (PM) who has to make your mind up even if to unlock a political prisoner on the way to shop his personal lifestyles. Copp takes this to be a case during which the govt. can't be excused from its ethical legal responsibility to chorus from liberating the prisoner, however the PM might be excused from his ethical legal responsibility to chorus from liberating the prisoner. Miller consents with this, yet argues that this example doesn't really help Copp's thesis. He claims that no matter if the PM is rightly excused for liberating the prisoner, "qua PM, [he] has . . . exactly the similar all issues thought of ethical legal responsibility [as the govt.] . . . to not free up the prisoner" (p. 146).
I locate this argument complicated since it seems to be to hinge on utilising the concept that of an all issues thought of (ATC) ethical legal responsibility to an agent-qua-institutional-role. in fact ethical responsibilities can connect to an individual-qua-role. yet can ATC ethical duties connect to individuals-qua-role? also, and this fear applies to Miller and Copp both, the declare that the PM is rightly excused from blame for failing to meet his ATC responsibilities is risky. Failure to meet specific duties can definitely be excused in gentle of ATC tasks, yet in mild of what are mess ups to satisfy ATC tasks supposedly excused?
In this example, Copp and Miller seem to think that the PM's worry for his existence is a justifying excuse. Importantly, the PM's worry (not the ATC weight of the PM's lifestyles) is doing the justificatory paintings the following. but when we excuse the PM simply because he was once triumph over with worry, we're excusing him simply because at that second his means for rational employer (understandably) failed him. yet then we needs to ask, in what experience does a person with a compromised capability for rational organisation have responsibilities? additionally, can a central authority, like anyone, be conquer with worry? if this is the case, will the govt. equally be quickly excused from its tasks? Answering those questions is hard. yet as the ethical duties of associations and their part people are exactly the factor the following, one needs for extra readability in those matters.
In bankruptcy five, Miller's conceptual research of institutional corruption breaks new and promising floor. in order to demarcate institutional corruption correctly from a extra common type of immoral activities, he entertains 5 intuitive hypotheses in regards to the nature of institutional corruption, concluding that basically 3 are actual. From this research, he builds an account of the mandatory and enough stipulations for institutional corruption. This dialogue either clarifies his teleological, individualist account of social associations and units him up for later utilized discussions. The ensuing research has a lot to suggest it.
However, the following back the arguments aren't fullyyt conclusive. for example, Miller considers the case of a citizen who breaks right into a neighborhood election workplace and falsifies the electoral function to help his preferred candidate (p. 169). Miller judges this to be a case of corruption and treats it as a counterexample to Dennis Thompson's declare that political corruption inevitably includes an abuse of public workplace.  yet readers won't proportion Miller's instinct that this situation consists of corruption, now not even after Miller has reminded the reader that voters carry institutional roles qua voters. i'm susceptible to disclaim that this example includes corruption accurately simply because corruption often (or probably inevitably) includes an abuse of institutionally granted privilege, notwithstanding now not inevitably an abuse of workplace. in truth, Miller's account of corruption could be incomplete accurately for failing to incorporate abuse of privilege as a situation on corruption. extra situations and significant mirrored image are had to settle the problem. Miller's approaching paintings on institutional corruption can assist in this front.
Because the 1st half the booklet is enthusiastic about problematic conceptual mapping and research, and since it's not continuously transparent to what finish those differences are being made, it really is, now and then, tedious to learn. however the value of this cautious research is later vindicated whilst Miller places it to paintings comparing particular modern social associations. He considers particularly the professions (Chapter 6), welfare associations (Chapter 7), universities (Chapter 8), the police (Chapter 9), company enterprises together with media organisations and monetary companies (Chapter 10), details and communications firms (Chapter 11), and the govt (Chapter 12). Miller has crafted those chapters so they can have stand-alone worth to an individual attracted to the actual associations in query. i feel of those discussions are fairly vital for audiences past philosophers.
Chapter eight addresses the troubling ways that fiscal and political pressures are at present reshaping universities. through supplying a lucid imaginative and prescient of the needs of the collage, Miller pinpoints precisely why those adjustments are troubling. Drawing on either Mill's belief of loose inquiry as an important capability to wisdom and Kant's perception of loose inquiry as a basic ethical correct, he keeps that the right kind objective of the collage is twofold: to institutionalize the pursuit of information and to embrace the proper to loose highbrow inquiry (p. 236). From right here, he argues that sure rights, such a lot significantly the autonomy of students, are worthy -- even though now not adequate -- stipulations for the achievement of those institutional ends, thereby explaining the suitable mistaken that happens once they are compromised within the identify of profitability or overburdened through bureaucracy.
Beyond protecting the rights linked to the position of student, Miller additionally insists it's attended by way of important tasks. for example, students have an obligation to maintain abreast of labor being performed of their fields. and students who've misplaced the capacities required to have interaction in rigorous unfastened inquiry are morally obligated to surrender from their positions. even though Miller by no means explicitly addresses the common phenomenon of grade inflation and the burgeoning of "grade 13" matters now plaguing associations of upper schooling, his articulation of the obligation to transmit highbrow abilities can be utilized to rebuke professors and directors who give a contribution to those tendencies. generally, all these occupied with greater schooling will take advantage of Miller's serious mirrored image at the college as a social institution.
In bankruptcy 10, Miller turns his cognizance towards glossy media businesses. operating from the basis that the collective finish of media businesses (whether deepest or public) is public conversation within the carrier of the general public curiosity, Miller argues successfully that modern media retailers, which basically "provide leisure and make gains for corporations" (p. 283), are falling wanting their ethical duties.
In an analogous bankruptcy, that is committed quite often to company firms, Miller additionally makes an attempt to diagnose the shortcomings of, and strength treatments for, the monetary providers area. Miller lays out the actual demanding situations all in favour of clarifying the collective ends of commercial businesses after which proceeds to argue that the pursuit of revenue is correctly taken care of simply as a proximate finish that serves, without delay or in some way, collective items. He writes, "To declare that the final word function of the establishment of the fashionable company . . . is just and in simple terms to maximise earnings [is to] confuse proximate with final purposes" (p. 292).
Miller's instrumentalist view of organizations and markets units him opposed to those that reject the concept markets could be regulated or differently engineered within the identify of collective items. He calls those competitors "market fundamentalists. " simply because industry fundamentalism in a number of kinds and levels is renowned, it truly is worthy pointing out how Miller's arguments either prevail and fail in contrast view. to begin, we needs to word that there are certain forms of industry fundamentalists opposed to whom Miller can be arguing, which he himself doesn't basically distinguish -- particularly, (1) those that aid loose markets simply because they suspect that the 'invisible hand' of the unfastened industry is extra effective than engineered markets at offering collective items, and (2) those that aid loose markets simply because they think that loose markets are morally improved to engineered markets whether they're extra effective at providing collective items. Miller successfully dismisses type-1 fundamentalism early his booklet, noting that it really is easily an empirical truth even if and less than which situations unfastened markets carry collective items, and insisting that "the a lot vaunted invisible hand of markets be made to convey on its can provide, together with in terms of applicable incentive constructions which are regulated into existence" (p. 63).
But this doesn't solution the second one type of industry fundamentalism, and right here, Miller's declare that marketplace fundamentalists 'confuse' proximate with final ends undersells his opponent. For the type-2 fundamentalist, maximizing revenue is the main simply target for firms (respecting the boundaries of ethical legal responsibility) accurately since it permits members inside of these associations to make your mind up even if and the way their hard work contributes to collective items. this is often vital simply because contributing to collective items is, in lots of instances, basically morally supererogatory, instead of compulsory. Forcing humans to hard work towards supererogatory ends is unjust. So, for type-2 fundamentalists, if the invisible hand fails to supply those supererogatory collective items, this is often an unlucky part influence of justice, now not a cause to desert the system.
There are unquestionably confusions inside of this kind of fundamentalism, and one needs Miller had leveraged his many assets to successfully reveal these confusions. yet he has now not. additional, it will be significant should you desire to wrestle industry fundamentalism to acknowledge that type-2 fundamentalism doesn't easily confuse proximate ends (profit) with final ends (collective goods). relatively type-2 fundamentalists understand that their competitors are looking to 'channel' their profit-making actions towards collective items, yet continue that revenue maximization makes a extra simply final finish for firms than any specific prescribed collective good(s). therefore, to reply to those fundamentalists, Miller wishes an issue that assaults that worth declare without delay. 
Nevertheless, Miller's dialogue of the monetary providers quarter bargains a beneficial perception -- specifically, that the shortcoming of a coherent and guiding institutional goal is itself a resource of destabilization within the company international. simply because his personal competing imaginative and prescient of markets -- during which they play a necessary instrumental position in supplying key collective items -- is intuitively beautiful, it primarily leaves the ball within the fundamentalist's court.
In truth, this final element may be generalized to Miller's concept as a complete. With this booklet, he implores us to contemplate how far better issues may be if all of us -- and specifically, if humans in key institutional roles of strength -- stopped to take care of the needs of our associations and the alternatives we make inside of them. The mere hazard of social associations as Miller envisions them alterations the normative panorama. during this experience, the booklet not just bargains a strong common concept and good deal of fodder for modern philosophical debates, it additionally serves as a version for a way cautious philosophical inquiry permits us to higher comprehend who we will be able to and will be.
 David Copp. 2007. "The Collective ethical Autonomy Thesis". magazine of Social Philosophy 38, no. three: 369-388.
 Dennis Thompson. 1995. Ethics in Congress: From person to Institutional Corruption. Washington D. C. : Brookings Institute. (p. 25)
 David M. Perry and Kathleen E. Kennedy. December thirteen, 2009. "Teaching 'Grade 13'". The Chronicle of upper schooling. online at http://chronicle. com/article/Teaching-Grade-13/49400/
 Miller attributes this time period to George Soros, for instance in George Soros. 2008. the recent Paradigm for monetary Markets: The credits difficulty of 2008 and What It capability. manhattan: Perseus Books.
 it truly is worthy noting that Miller does, at an past aspect within the booklet, supply one such argument (pp. 61-63). yet this argument hinges on intuitions that type-2 fundamentalists could kind of reject.
Copyright © 2004 Notre Dame Philosophical studies
Writer observe: John grey (Forward), Henry Hardy (Editor)
Publish 12 months be aware: First released in 1965
The Roots of Romanticism finally makes to be had in revealed shape Isaiah Berlin's such a lot celebrated lecture sequence, the Mellon lectures, added in Washington in 1965, recorded by way of the BBC, and broadcast a number of instances. a printed model has been keenly awaited ever because the lectures got, and Berlin had consistently was hoping to accomplish a publication in response to them. yet regardless of broad additional paintings this wish was once no longer fulfilled, and the current quantity is an edited transcript of his spoken words.
For Berlin, the Romantics set in movement an enormous, unheard of revolution in humanity's view of itself. They destroyed the normal notions of aim fact and validity in ethics with incalculable, all-pervasive effects. As he acknowledged of the Romantics in other places: the area hasn't ever been an identical due to the fact, and our politics and morals were deeply reworked through them. definitely this has been the main radical, and certainly dramatic, to not say terrifying, switch in men's outlook in glossy times.
In those tremendous lectures Berlin surveys the myriad makes an attempt to outline Romanticism, distills its essence, lines its advancements from its first stirrings to its apotheosis, and exhibits how its lasting legacy permeates our personal outlook. Combining the freshness and immediacy of the spoken observe with Berlin's inimitable eloquence and wit, the lectures diversity over a forged of the best thinkers and artists of the eighteenth and 19th centuries, together with Kant, Rousseau, Diderot, Schiller, Schlegel, Novalis, Goethe, Blake, Byron, and Beethoven. Berlin argues that the guidelines and attitudes held by way of those and different figures helped to form twentieth-century nationalism, existentialism, democracy, totalitarianism,and our principles approximately heroic contributors, person self-fulfillment, and the exalted position of paintings. this can be the checklist of an highbrow bravura performance--of one of many century's such a lot influential philosophers dissecting and assessing a stream that modified the process heritage.
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Additional info for La pratique philosophique : Une méthode contemporaine pour mettre la sagesse au service de votre bien-être
The chief philosophical influences on Plato, apart from his reverence for the personality and ethical teaching of Socrates, were Parmenides, Anaxagoras, and, above all, the Pythagorean tradition. We have already seen that, in contrast to the Milesian tradition, the Pythagoreans postulated the interaction of two opposite principles in the generation of the universe. For Plato, however, their most important insight was the mathematicization of reality. The initial stimulus, so far as we can see, that drove Plato to the formulation of his distinctive philosophy was a desire to provide a metaphysical underpinning for the intuition of Socrates that there were objective realities underlying the basic terms of ethics and aesthetics, in such a way that these terms did not simply represent subjective impressions or arbitrary conven- THE QUESTION OF BEING <$> 6~ It seems, however, that although Socrates argued for an objective realcorresponding to such terms as justice, courage, or beauty, he had not arat any very definite notion as to what status these entities might have, whether they constituted a system 01' "world" quite separate from our one.
On the other hand, he is convinced that "nature" implies a certain consistency between cause and effect that can be discerned by observation and "confirmed" by verification, and he denies any divine intervention that might upset the relationship. Like everything natural, illnesses have causes that the physician must discover if he wants to cure them. This attitude came to be shared by most of the authors of the Hippocratic Corpus. Dissection seems to have been practiced as early as the 5th century, perhaps starting with Alcmaeon.
RETURN TO MYTH The strength of Greek science resides basically in its formal tech;'iques, both dialectic and demonstrative; the Greeks put tremendous energy into developin an axiomatic system and using mathematics as a privileged tool to underst:nd natural phenomena. They also made important contributions to the empirical method, both in research and in practical application; history and geography were the first fields for which the collection of data ,:~s careful and thorough, although this practice soon extended to mclude medICIne.