By Xavier Pavie

Si los angeles idea de "méditation" fait souvent référence à des pratiques religieuses, notamment à travers le bouddhisme, celle-ci apparaît dans notre civilisation avec l. a. philosophie old. Fondée sur diverses innovations, los angeles méditation fait partie des célèbres exercices spirituels mis en oeuvre par les Anciens dont l'enjeu est l'amélioration et los angeles transformation de soi. Loin d'être le second d'un recueillement, los angeles méditation dans l. a. philosophie recouvre une pluralité d'activités comme le bilan de soi, los angeles préméditation des maux, and so forth. Elle se pratique à l'occasion d'un discussion avec autrui, d'une prom méditative ou encore d'une certaine pratique de l'écriture. l. a. méditation philosophique s'exerce donc dans le monde, et si le philosophe se plonge dans une méditation il reste néanmoins proche de los angeles vie, de l. a. Cité et du quotidien. vehicle ce qui lui importe, c'est en quoi los angeles méditation lui permet de mieux vivre là où il se trouve. Les philosophes pratiquant los angeles méditation dans l'Antiquité - mais pas seulement - restent de grandes assets d'inspiration pour notre quotidien. Cet ouvrage est destiné à retrouver ces pratiques intemporelles qui permettent d'appréhender notre monde.

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The Moral Foundations of Social Institutions: A Philosophical Study

Reviewed through Alexa Forrester, Franklin & Marshall College
 

After the tumult of the decade -- a preemptive conflict in Iraq, a large-scale humanitarian quandary in Darfur, the worldwide cave in of monetary markets, and heated political tensions inside of person international locations like Iran, Thailand and the U.S. -- Seumas Miller's the ethical Foundations of Social associations: A Philosophical research (MFSI) deals a well timed and thorough reaction to the query: what should still our social associations be and do?

Taken as an entire, Miller's accomplished normative concept of social associations is undeniably beneficial, either in its readiness to be marshaled to diagnose and increase our present associations, and its skill to ahead modern debates in utilized social philosophy. It makes a weighty contribution to ongoing inquiry into how participation in complicated social structures affects the character and content material of our person ethical tasks. however it does this with out overstating the ontology of those platforms. Miller recognizes that the which means and results of our activities can't be understood with no knowing the actual collectives during which these activities are authored. however, based on him, the reins of organization nonetheless and consistently lie within the fingers of individuals.

The publication is split into sections. within the first part, Miller lays out his normal conception; within the moment part, he makes use of this idea to judge, and the place applicable, criticize modern associations, together with the media, universities, monetary agencies, and the govt as a meta-institution.

The theoretical 1/2 MFSI attracts on Miller's formerly released paintings within the components of collective motion idea and ethical accountability. He calls his conception a teleological, individualist, normative conception of social associations. it really is 'teleological' within the feel that it takes social associations to be demarcated and partly outlined by way of the collective ends they serve. it really is 'individualist' within the experience that it rejects the concept that associations are collective brokers, insisting in its place that associations are not anything over and above participants and the relationships among these contributors. protecting this declare, Miller attends to how ethical brokers can separately carry results in this type of means that they thereby carry, together, a collective finish, and the way institutional roles and mechanisms bind teams of people into associations. the place acceptable, he deals convincing responses to those that shield different types of collectivism. eventually, Miller's conception is a 'normative' concept of social associations simply because, he contends, the collective ends that delineate a number of social associations needs to be collective items (or to serve collective goods).

Taking a normative stance that's refreshingly pluralistic, Miller keeps that those collective items are a number of, and can't be captured by way of a unmarried monistic thought of price. He explores the plural ethical foundations of associations in bankruptcy 2, which come with aggregated needs-based rights and joint ethical rights, e. g. , to lifestyles and to autonomy. He additionally highlights how social associations have a normative size constructed from rights and tasks that come up in simple terms next to associations. In Chapters three, four and five, he investigates the innovations of person autonomy, collective accountability, and corruption in gentle of his account. whereas those sections of the ebook exhibit the remarkable succeed in of Miller's concept and additional make clear the stakes of his view, no longer the entire arguments are conclusive.

Chapter four makes an attempt to explicate the connection among institutional and person ethical legal responsibility and accountability. To this finish, a part of the bankruptcy is dedicated to recapitulating and increasing a previous debate with David Copp. On Copp's collectivist belief of ethical accountability, an establishment could have a given legal responsibility or accountability whether none of the institution's constituent participants has an identical legal responsibility or accountability. In a 2007 paper, Copp makes use of a sequence of circumstances to demonstrate the opportunity of such collective institutional accountability. [1] Miller examines every one of those situations in flip and, drawing at the assets built in past chapters, unearths flaws in each one (pp. 142-153). yet no longer all of those instances pop out sincerely in Miller's favor.

For instance, Miller examines Copp's case of a major minister (PM) who has to make your mind up no matter if to liberate a political prisoner as a way to shop his personal existence. Copp takes this to be a case during which the govt can't be excused from its ethical legal responsibility to chorus from liberating the prisoner, however the PM will be excused from his ethical legal responsibility to chorus from freeing the prisoner. Miller is of the same opinion with this, yet argues that this example doesn't truly help Copp's thesis. He claims that whether the PM is rightly excused for freeing the prisoner, "qua PM, [he] has . . . exactly the comparable all issues thought of ethical legal responsibility [as the govt.] . . . to not free up the prisoner" (p. 146).

I locate this argument complicated since it seems to be to hinge on utilizing the idea that of an all issues thought of (ATC) ethical legal responsibility to an agent-qua-institutional-role. after all ethical tasks can connect to an individual-qua-role. yet can ATC ethical tasks connect to individuals-qua-role? also, and this fear applies to Miller and Copp both, the declare that the PM is rightly excused from blame for failing to meet his ATC duties is risky. Failure to meet specific responsibilities can definitely be excused in mild of ATC duties, yet in gentle of what are disasters to meet ATC tasks supposedly excused?

In this example, Copp and Miller seem to think that the PM's worry for his lifestyles is a justifying excuse. Importantly, the PM's worry (not the ATC weight of the PM's existence) is doing the justificatory paintings right here. but when we excuse the PM simply because he used to be triumph over with worry, we're excusing him simply because at that second his potential for rational business enterprise (understandably) failed him. yet then we needs to ask, in what feel does a person with a compromised ability for rational organization have tasks? additionally, can a central authority, like somebody, be triumph over with worry? if this is the case, will the govt. equally be quickly excused from its responsibilities? Answering those questions is difficult. yet as the ethical responsibilities of associations and their part people are exactly the factor the following, one needs for extra readability in those matters.

In bankruptcy five, Miller's conceptual research of institutional corruption breaks new and promising flooring. to be able to demarcate institutional corruption safely from a extra normal category of immoral activities, he entertains 5 intuitive hypotheses in regards to the nature of institutional corruption, concluding that simply 3 are real. From this research, he builds an account of the required and adequate stipulations for institutional corruption. This dialogue either clarifies his teleological, individualist account of social associations and units him up for later utilized discussions. The ensuing research has a lot to suggest it.

However, the following back the arguments are usually not solely conclusive. for example, Miller considers the case of a citizen who breaks right into a neighborhood election place of work and falsifies the electoral position to aid his favorite candidate (p. 169). Miller judges this to be a case of corruption and treats it as a counterexample to Dennis Thompson's declare that political corruption inevitably contains an abuse of public place of work. [2] yet readers would possibly not percentage Miller's instinct that this example includes corruption, now not even after Miller has reminded the reader that voters carry institutional roles qua electorate. i'm susceptible to disclaim that this example includes corruption accurately simply because corruption frequently (or possibly inevitably) includes an abuse of institutionally granted privilege, even though no longer unavoidably an abuse of place of work. actually, Miller's account of corruption should be incomplete accurately for failing to incorporate abuse of privilege as a on corruption. extra situations and important mirrored image are had to settle the problem. Miller's coming near near paintings on institutional corruption can help in this front.

Because the 1st half the e-book is fascinated by difficult conceptual mapping and research, and since it's not continually transparent to what finish those differences are being made, it really is, every now and then, tedious to learn. however the value of this cautious research is later vindicated whilst Miller places it to paintings comparing particular modern social associations. He considers particularly the professions (Chapter 6), welfare associations (Chapter 7), universities (Chapter 8), the police (Chapter 9), company enterprises together with media organizations and fiscal agencies (Chapter 10), info and communications corporations (Chapter 11), and the govt (Chapter 12). Miller has crafted those chapters so they could have stand-alone worth to somebody attracted to the actual associations in query. i think of those discussions are fairly vital for audiences past philosophers.

Chapter eight addresses the troubling ways that financial and political pressures are at present reshaping universities. by way of providing a lucid imaginative and prescient of the needs of the college, Miller pinpoints precisely why those adjustments are troubling. Drawing on either Mill's perception of unfastened inquiry as an important capability to wisdom and Kant's belief of unfastened inquiry as a primary ethical correct, he keeps that the right kind function of the college is twofold: to institutionalize the pursuit of information and to include the perfect to unfastened highbrow inquiry (p. 236). From the following, he argues that convinced rights, so much particularly the autonomy of students, are beneficial -- notwithstanding now not adequate -- stipulations for the success of those institutional ends, thereby explaining the perfect flawed that happens after they are compromised within the identify of profitability or overburdened through bureaucracy.

Beyond protecting the rights linked to the function of pupil, Miller additionally insists it's attended by means of important tasks. for example, students have an obligation to maintain abreast of labor being performed of their fields. and students who've misplaced the capacities required to interact in rigorous loose inquiry are morally obligated to renounce from their positions. although Miller by no means explicitly addresses the common phenomenon of grade inflation and the burgeoning of "grade 13"[3] matters now plaguing associations of upper schooling, his articulation of the obligation to transmit highbrow abilities can be utilized to rebuke professors and directors who give a contribution to those tendencies. typically, all these curious about better schooling will take advantage of Miller's severe mirrored image at the college as a social institution.

In bankruptcy 10, Miller turns his recognition towards sleek media organizations. operating from the basis that the collective finish of media companies (whether deepest or public) is public verbal exchange within the provider of the general public curiosity, Miller argues successfully that modern media retailers, which basically "provide leisure and make earnings for corporations" (p. 283), are falling in need of their ethical duties.

In an analogous bankruptcy, that is committed commonly to enterprise organizations, Miller additionally makes an attempt to diagnose the shortcomings of, and strength treatments for, the monetary providers region. Miller lays out the actual demanding situations interested by clarifying the collective ends of industrial firms after which proceeds to argue that the pursuit of revenue is correctly handled basically as a proximate finish that serves, without delay or ultimately, collective items. He writes, "To declare that the last word function of the establishment of the fashionable company . . . is just and in basic terms to maximise gains [is to] confuse proximate with final purposes" (p. 292).

Miller's instrumentalist view of organizations and markets units him opposed to those that reject the concept markets might be regulated or another way engineered within the identify of collective items. He calls those competitors "market fundamentalists. "[4] simply because marketplace fundamentalism in a number of types and levels is well known, it truly is worthy declaring how Miller's arguments either be triumphant and fail in contrast view. to begin, we needs to observe that there are specified sorts of industry fundamentalists opposed to whom Miller can be arguing, which he himself doesn't basically distinguish -- specifically, (1) those that help loose markets simply because they think that the 'invisible hand' of the unfastened marketplace is extra effective than engineered markets at offering collective items, and (2) those that help unfastened markets simply because they suspect that loose markets are morally enhanced to engineered markets whether they're extra effective at offering collective items. Miller successfully dismisses type-1 fundamentalism early his booklet, noting that it really is easily an empirical truth no matter if and lower than which situations unfastened markets convey collective items, and insisting that "the a lot vaunted invisible hand of markets be made to bring on its can provide, together with when it comes to acceptable incentive buildings which are regulated into existence" (p. 63).

But this doesn't resolution the second one kind of marketplace fundamentalism, and right here, Miller's declare that marketplace fundamentalists 'confuse' proximate with final ends undersells his opponent. For the type-2 fundamentalist, maximizing revenue is the main simply target for companies (respecting the boundaries of ethical legal responsibility) accurately since it permits participants inside of these associations to determine no matter if and the way their hard work contributes to collective items. this can be very important simply because contributing to collective items is, in lots of circumstances, merely morally supererogatory, instead of compulsory. Forcing humans to exertions towards supererogatory ends is unjust. So, for type-2 fundamentalists, if the invisible hand fails to supply those supererogatory collective items, this can be an unlucky facet influence of justice, no longer a cause to desert the system.

There are unquestionably confusions inside of this sort of fundamentalism, and one needs Miller had leveraged his many assets to successfully disclose these confusions. yet he has now not. additional, it is necessary in the event you desire to wrestle industry fundamentalism to acknowledge that type-2 fundamentalism doesn't easily confuse proximate ends (profit) with final ends (collective goods). really type-2 fundamentalists be aware of that their rivals are looking to 'channel' their profit-making actions towards collective items, yet retain that revenue maximization makes a extra simply final finish for firms than any specific prescribed collective good(s). hence, to respond to those fundamentalists, Miller wishes a controversy that assaults that price declare without delay. [5]

Nevertheless, Miller's dialogue of the monetary prone quarter deals a necessary perception -- particularly, that the inability of a coherent and guiding institutional function is itself a resource of destabilization within the company global. simply because his personal competing imaginative and prescient of markets -- within which they play an essential instrumental position in supplying key collective items -- is intuitively beautiful, it primarily leaves the ball within the fundamentalist's court.

In truth, this final aspect may be generalized to Miller's conception as an entire. With this publication, he implores us to contemplate how far better issues will be if all of us -- and specifically, if humans in key institutional roles of energy -- stopped to take care of the needs of our associations and the alternatives we make inside of them. The mere chance of social associations as Miller envisions them alterations the normative panorama. during this experience, the ebook not just deals a robust common idea and good deal of fodder for modern philosophical debates, it additionally serves as a version for the way cautious philosophical inquiry permits us to raised comprehend who we will be able to and will be.

[1] David Copp. 2007. "The Collective ethical Autonomy Thesis". magazine of Social Philosophy 38, no. three: 369-388.

[2] Dennis Thompson. 1995. Ethics in Congress: From person to Institutional Corruption. Washington D. C. : Brookings Institute. (p. 25)

[3] David M. Perry and Kathleen E. Kennedy. December thirteen, 2009. "Teaching 'Grade 13'". The Chronicle of upper schooling. online at http://chronicle. com/article/Teaching-Grade-13/49400/

[4] Miller attributes this time period to George Soros, for instance in George Soros. 2008. the recent Paradigm for monetary Markets: The credits trouble of 2008 and What It skill. big apple: Perseus Books.

[5] it really is worthy noting that Miller does, at an previous aspect within the publication, provide one such argument (pp. 61-63). yet this argument hinges on intuitions that type-2 fundamentalists may kind of reject.

Copyright © 2004 Notre Dame Philosophical stories

The Roots of Romanticism (2nd Edition)

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Publish 12 months word: First released in 1965
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In those really good lectures Berlin surveys the myriad makes an attempt to outline Romanticism, distills its essence, lines its advancements from its first stirrings to its apotheosis, and indicates how its lasting legacy permeates our personal outlook. Combining the freshness and immediacy of the spoken be aware with Berlin's inimitable eloquence and wit, the lectures diversity over a forged of the best thinkers and artists of the eighteenth and 19th centuries, together with Kant, Rousseau, Diderot, Schiller, Schlegel, Novalis, Goethe, Blake, Byron, and Beethoven. Berlin argues that the information and attitudes held via those and different figures helped to form twentieth-century nationalism, existentialism, democracy, totalitarianism,and our principles approximately heroic members, person self-fulfillment, and the exalted position of paintings. this can be the checklist of an highbrow bravura performance--of one of many century's such a lot influential philosophers dissecting and assessing a circulation that modified the process historical past.

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Additional resources for La méditation philosophique : Une initiation aux exercices spirituels

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En conséquence, le malheur, il importe de s’y confronter quand il se présentera et non pas avant. La préméditation philosophique car celui-ci avait été anticipé. Sénèque le souligne ainsi : « L’inattendu accable davantage, et leur étrangeté augmente le poids des infortunes : il n’est pas de mortel chez qui la surprise même n’ajoute au chagrin1. » Sénèque est très clair, il s’agit de ne pas tomber sous le coup de la surprise qui ne ferait qu’ajouter à la peine, en désamorçant l’effet d’étonnement, « seule » la difficulté restera à surmonter.

28 user 189 at Thu Jul 29 09:59:11 +0200 2010 © Groupe Eyrolles Dans ce rapide parcours des exercices spirituels, il n’a aucune fois été question de méditation et pourtant elle est constante, permanente, diffuse, continue, précise et puissante. Le terme même de « méditation » est intimement lié aux exercices spirituels ; nous avons souligné qu’étymologiquement « exercice » et « méditation » sont synonymes. Pierre Hadot, d’ailleurs, utilise l’expression « méditation » s’agissant des exercices spirituels, dans la mesure où melête correspond à meditatio en latin et désigne les « exercices préparatoires ».

27 user 189 at Thu Jul 29 09:59:11 +0200 2010 La méditation philosophique Une méditation de l’action Pas d’exercice spirituel sans méditation L’exercice spirituel ne peut émerger sans méditation, il peut être évoqué, mais de façon furtive, rapide, superficiellement. Il n’entre alors ni dans l’habitude ni dans la conscience de l’individu. Sans méditation, pas d’exercice spirituel, on s’en tient à du discours, à de la théorie, pas à de la pratique ni à l’expérience. La méditation est la clé de l’exercice spirituel, comme elle l’est de toute la philosophie.

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