By Professor Dr. Viacheslav E. Kunitsyn, Dr. Evgeny D. Tereshchenko (auth.)

The function of this monograph is either to introduce and overview constructed tomograhic equipment for locating second and 3D constructions of the ionosphere and to debate the experimental implementation of those tools. The theoretical half offers with the answer of the inverse challenge of diffraction tomography for a variety of houses of ionospheric media. Examples are given to demonstrate the experimental reconstruction of electron-density distributions in ionospheric sections. as well as addressing the professional researcher, the targeted derivations and motives make this ebook a superb start line for nonspecialists and graduate scholars who desire to input this fascinating new box to which the authors have made pioneering contributions.

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Ray Radio Tomography the ionosphere at the same point. Similarly, a pair of equations for another instant leads to a system for the initial phase, where the influence of the gradient term will be weakened. 11) is replaced by a less strict one. However, this method is incapable of complete elimination of the effect of the horizontal gradient and higher order derivatives on the results of the initial phase determination. Of course, it is always possible to propose a recording scheme allowing determination of the initial phase, but this involves multifrequency measurements by several receivers.

1999]. 2 Construction of Projection Operator Approximations Here we shall consider some methods for constructing projection operators of the RT forward problem and compare them. All possible operators can hardly be analyzed here; therefore, we shall consider only those based on discretization using a rectangular grid. As for other methods of constructing operators, only a few general remarks will be made. One of the possible approaches is to construct operators based on finite expansions in known continuous functions.

2 Basic Methods for Radio Sounding and Monitoring the Ionosphere 19 Some difficulties are also encountered in reconstruction of electron density profiles from ionograms, for example, the problem of taking into account the interaction of magnetoionic components, bending of their ray trajectories even in a plane-stratified ionosphere, and the "valley problem" (valley here means the region between the maxima of neighboring layers). But the principal limitation of the standard method of vertical sounding is the assumption of a stratified ionosphere.

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