By R. Curtis Bird and J. S. Williams (Eds.)
Using ion beams for fabrics research contains many alternative ion-atom interplay approaches which formerly have mostly been thought of in separate studies and texts. an inventory of books and convention lawsuits is given in desk 2. This ebook is split into 3 elements, the 1st which treats all ion beam options and their purposes in such diversified fields as fabrics technology, skinny movie and semiconductor expertise, floor technological know-how, geology, biology, medication, environmental technological know-how, archaeology and so on. Read more...
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Extra info for Ion Beams for Materials Analysis
Fig. 21 indicates h o w particular locations of foreign a t o m s can influence t h e i n t e r a c t i o n yield in different incident ion directions. S h a d o w e d a t o m s give low yield 1. \Ι ο ο c ι ο ο ο ο ο c ο ο ο ο c ο ο ο · ο c ο c ι ο | \ | \ Depth of impurities ι ν \ \ ο Random I ο Iο \ ο ο Surface I I ί\ΛΛ. Direction 1 Direction 2 Depth F i g . 21 P r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d in foreign a t o m l o c a t i o n b y c h a n n e l i n g . whereas a t o m s lying in c h a n n e l centres give high yield.
R. s. ion yield Close packed surface rows Ι ΛΑΑΑ-Λ,Λ. —a a=0 +a F i g . 18 L o w energy i o n p a t h s a n d a n g u l a r yields-from a crystalline s a m p l e s h o w i n g t h e effects of (a) m u l t i p l e s c a t t e r i n g , (b) s h a d o w i n g / b l o c k i n g , a n d (c) s p u t t e r i n g . d e p t h . T h e i n c i d e n t b e a m is initially c h a n n e l e d along a low index crystallographic direction (Θ = 0°). As t h e crystal is tilted a b o u t this direction, t h e i n t e r a c t i o n yield from t h e surface rows of a t o m s is i n d e p e n d e n t of tilt angle.
Medium Energy Low Energy High Energy Regime SIMS SIPS SIMP SIMS SIPS LEIS MEIS CH— RBS~~ ~H LEIS NRA PIGME MEIS ι 10 10* 10- 3 FS NRA PIGME PIXE SPMP PAA 10* Ion Energy (keV) F i g . 13 I o n b e a m a n a l y s i s r e g i m e s for different i o n e n e r g i e s a n d m a s s e s . 1. 2 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE COMPOSITION T h e p r o c e d u r e for q u a n t i t a t i v e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a specific isotope or element involves t h e following steps: • • • • selection of t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e , i r r a d i a t i o n con d i t i o n s a n d a d e t e c t i o n system w h i c h will distinguish r a d i a t i o n from t h e isotope(s) o r element(s) of interest a n d from interfering i n t e r a c t i o n s or b a c k g r o u n d ; m e a s u r e m e n t of t h e intensity of t h a t r a d i a t i o n as a n u m b e r of particles or p h o t o n s e m i t t e d for a m e a s u r e d q u a n t i t y of i n c i d e n t ions; d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a n y c o r r e c t i o n s necessary for t h e effects of d e t e c t o r p e r f o r m a n c e , interfering i n t e r a c t i o n s a n d b a c k g r o u n d ; and c o n v e r s i o n of t h e net yield or r a d i a t i o n t o a c o n c e n t r a t i o n using a k n o w n cross-section or by c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e yield from a s a m p l e of k n o w n c o m p o s i t i o n .