By David R. Gaskell

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Sample text

Thus or if the temperature change is made vanishingly small, then The concept of heat capacity is only used when the addition of heat to or withdrawal of heat from the system produces a temperature change; the concept is not used when a phase change is involved. For example, if the system is a mixture of ice and water at 1 atm pressure and 0°C, then the addition of heat simply melts some of the ice and no change in temperature occurs. In such a case the heat capacity, as defined, would be infinite.

In both of these examples the reverse process (unmixing of the gases and the flow of heat up a temperature gradient) will never occur spontaneously, and in both examples the simplicity of the system, along with common experience, allows the equilibrium states to be predicted without any knowledge of the criteria for equilibrium. However, in less simple systems, the equilibrium state cannot be predicted from common experience, and the criteria governing equilibrium must be established before calculation of the equilibrium state can be made.

The system then undergoes the following reversible cyclic process. a. An isobaric expansion to 100°C, followed by b. A decrease in pressure at constant volume to the pressure P atm, followed by c. 5 liters, followed by d. An increase in pressure at constant volume to 1 atm. Calculate the value of P which makes the work done on the gas during the first cycle equal to the work done by the gas during the second cycle. 8 Two moles of an ideal gas, in an initial state P=10 atm, V=5 liters, are taken reversibly in a clockwise direction around a circular path give by (V–10)2+ (P–10)2=25.

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