By David C. Jiles
One basics of Electrons in Materials.- 1 homes of a cloth continuum.- 1.1 Relationships among macroscopic homes of materials.- 1.2 Mechanical properties.- 1.3 electric properties.- 1.4 Optical properties.- 1.5 Thermal properties.- 1.6 Magnetic properties.- 1.7 Relationships among numerous bulk properties.- 1.8 Conclusions.- References.- additional Reading.- Exercises.- 2 homes of atoms in materials.- 2.1 The position of atoms inside a material.- 2.2 The harmonic power model.- 2.3 particular warmth capacity.- 2.4 Conclusions.- References.- extra Reading.- Exercises.- three Conduction electrons in fabrics — classical approach.- 3.1 Electrons as classical debris in materials.- 3.2 electric homes and the classical free-electron model.- 3.3 Thermal homes and the classical free-electron model.- 3.4 Optical houses of metals.- 3.5 Conclusions.- References.- additional Reading.- Exercises.- four Conduction electrons in fabrics — quantum corrections.- 4.1 digital contribution to express heat.- 4.2 Wave equation at no cost electrons.- 4.3 Boundary stipulations: the Sommerfeld model.- 4.4 Distribution of electrons between allowed strength levels.- 4.5 fabric houses anticipated through the quantum free-electron model.- 4.6 Conclusions.- References.- additional Reading.- Exercises.- five certain electrons and the periodic potential.- 5.1 versions for describing electrons in materials.- 5.2 resolution of the wave equation in a one-dimensionalperiodic square-well potential.- 5.3 The starting place of power bands in solids: the tight-bindingapproximation.- 5.4 power bands in a solid.- 5.5 Reciprocal or wave vector k-space.- 5.6 Examples of band constitution diagrams.- 5.7 Conclusions.- References.- extra Reading.- Exercises.- houses of Materials.- 6 digital houses of metals.- 6.1 electric conductivity of metals.- 6.2 Reflectance and absorption.- 6.3 The Fermi surface.- References.- additional Reading.- Exercises.- 7 digital houses of semiconductors.- 7.1 Electron band constructions of semiconductors.- 7.2 Intrinsic semiconductors.- 7.3 Extrinsic (or impurity) semiconductors.- 7.4 Optical homes of semiconductors.- 7.5 Photoconductivity.- 7.6 The corridor effect.- 7.7 powerful mass and mobility of cost carriers.- 7.8 Semiconductor junctions.- References.- extra Reading.- Exercises.- eight electric and thermal homes of materials.- 8.1 Macroscopic electric properties.- 8.2 Quantum mechanical description of conduction electronbehaviour.- 8.3 Dielectric properties.- 8.4 different results attributable to electrical fields, magnetic fieldsand thermal gradients.- 8.5 Thermal homes of materials.- 8.6 different thermal properties.- References.- extra Reading.- Exercises.- nine Optical houses of materials.- 9.1 Optical properties.- 9.2 Intèrpretation of optical homes by way of simplifiedelectron band structure.- 9.3 Band constitution selection from optical spectra.- 9.4 Photoluminescence and electroluminesence.- References.- additional Reading.- Exercises.- 10 Magnetic homes of materials.- 10.1 Magnetism in materials.- 10.2 sorts of magnetic material.- 10.3 Microscopic type of magnetic materials.- 10.4 Band electron conception of magnetism.- 10.5 The localized electron version of magnetism.- 10.6 functions of magnetic materials.- References.- additional Reading.- Exercises.- 3 purposes of digital Materials.- eleven Microelectronics — semiconductor technology.- 11.1 Use of fabrics for particular digital functions.- 11.2 Semiconductor materials.- 11.3 general semiconductor devices.- 11.4 Microelectronic semiconductor devices.- 11.5 destiny advancements in semiconductors.- References.- additional Reading.- 12 Optoelectronics — solid-state optical devices.- 12.1 digital fabrics with optical functions.- 12.2 fabrics for optoelectronic devices.- 12.3 Lasers.- 12.4 Fibre optics and telecommunications.- 12.5 Liquid-crystal displays.- References.- additional Reading.- thirteen Quantum electronics — superconducting materials.- 13.1 Quantum results in electric conductivity.- 13.2 Theories of superconductivity.- 13.3 fresh advancements in high-temperature superconductors.- 13.4 purposes of superconductors.- References.- additional Reading.- 14 Magnetic fabrics — magnetic recording technology.- 14.1 Magnetic recording of information.- 14.2 Magnetic recording materials.- 14.3 traditional magnetic recording utilizing particulate media.- 14.4 Magneto-optic recording.- References.- additional Reading.- 15 digital fabrics for transducers — sensors and actuators.- 15.1 Transducers.- 15.2 Transducer functionality parameters.- 15.3 Transducer fabrics considerations.- 15.4 Ferroelectric materials.- 15.5 Ferroelectrics as transducers.- References.- extra Reading.- sixteen digital fabrics for radiation detection.- 16.1 Radiation sensors.- 16.2 Gas-filled detectors.- 16.3 Semiconductor detectors.- 16.4 Scintillation detectors.- 16.5 Thermoluminescent detectors.- 16.6 Pyroelectric sensors.- References.- additional Reading.- Solutions.- writer Index.
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Extra resources for Introduction to the Electronic Properties of Materials
The equation of motion then becomes, d" m~ =e~-y" dt 44 Conduction electrons in materials - classical approach Velocity v v, 1 ----------------------- 2't 3't Timet Fig. 2 Variation of the velocity of free electrons with time. The electrons reach a terminal velocity which is dependent on the resistive force caused by interactions with the lattice. where y is a constant which represents a resistive force which is proportional to electron velocity, preventing the electrons from being accelerated to infinite velocity.
Aluminium has a Debye temperature of 430 K. Prove that the Debye theory and the Dulong-Petit law give the same results at high temperatures. Estimate the thermal energy of 1 gram mole of aluminium at 300 K by using Fig. 9. Explain why the results are different. 3 Conduction Electrons in Materials - Classical Approach In this chapter we shall approach the description of electrons in solids using one of the simplest models possible, that of electrons as classical particles moving almost freely within the material experiencing minimal interactions with the ionic potential.
It has given us a relatively simple introduction to the concept of quantized energy states because it can be quite easily visualized, even from a classical argument, why the quantization of lattice vibration occurs. When we come to discussing the quantization of electron energies rather more abstraction will be required. However, having understood the reasons for quantization of lattice vibrations in this chapter, it should be easier to follow the discussion of quantization of electron energies in which the concept of imposed boundary conditions again plays a crucial role.