By Judit E. Puskas

Designed for polymer and fabrics engineering scholars, the textual content introduces polymer chemistry via polymers present in nature. It explains biobased polymer structures and artificial platforms through exploring the chemistry of usual polymers from vegetation and animals, in addition to self-assembled macromolecular constructions, together with proteins, lignin, protamers, and fibers. additionally coated are artificial polymerization and rising advances in eco-friendly polymer chemistry, together with exact causes of eco-friendly syntheses.

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2003. New York: Hyperion Books, pp. 53–65. CHAPTER 2 Polynucleic Acids (Polynucleotides) W HAT is the most abundant polymer on the planet? , tires)? The answer is polynucleic acids. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are macromolecules and are long polymer chains of polynucleotides [poly(nucleic acids)]. DNA and RNA play a central role in all living organisms. 1. 1. DNA The primary function of DNA is the storage and transmission of biological information. DNA contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms with the exception of some viruses.

1. ). Proteins, enzymes, DNA and similar natural polymers have a well-defined structure and a precise molecular weight. Synthetic macromolecules are invariably polymolecular (polydisperse): they consist of a mixture of molecules with many different molecular weights (chain lengths). Some natural polymers such as NR are also polydisperse. Therefore we need to define molecular weight averages. The most important averages are the number average (Mn), the weight average (Mw) and the “z” average (Mz) molecular weights: Mn = Mw = Σni M i Σwi = Σni Σni Σwi M i Σni M i2 = Σwi Σni M i MWD = Mz = Mw Mn Σni M i3 Σni M i2 where wi is the weight fraction of the molecules with molecular weight of Mi, and ni is the number of molecules with molecular weight of Mi.

Fisher, J. , Pry, R. H. A simple substitution model of technological change. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 1971, 3, 75–88. , Burkett, S. , Tarkanian, M. J. Prehistoric polymers: Rubber processing in ancient mesoamerica. Science 1999, 284, 1988–1991. , Alternative sources of natural rubber. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2000, 53, 355–365. Morton, M. History of synthetic rubber. J. Macromol. , Part A: Pure Appl. Chem. 1981, 15, 1289–1302. , Graeme, M. Glossary of terms related to kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism of polymerization (IUPAC Recommendations 2008), Pure Appl.

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