By Richard A. Pethrick, Taweechai Amornsaichai, Alastair M. North

This e-book explains how molecular move depends upon chemical constitution, then how movement controls the actual and technological homes of polymer fabrics. Readers are brought to the strategies of molecular circulation in polymers and the connections with causative chemical constitution at the one hand and ensuing bulk actual and technological habit at the different. The strategy is non-mathematical, yet is molecularly established and permits readers to appreciate the designated chemical and rigorous mathematical discussions of extra complex texts.

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Probably the most obvious physical property of a polymer is its hardness or softness. Indeed, the words “plastic” and “rubber” convey a picture of a deformable material. There are five important mechanical properties which form the core of our discussion. These are: O O O O O hardness and softness and the ability to undergo reversible deformation; elastic recovery of original shape; vibration damping and energy loss; flow and “creep” – irreversible deformation; fracture – brittle and ductile breaks.

Newton was studying the behaviour of a soft deformable ball in a shear field. 15). If we now sit on the axes of the rotating deformed ball, and consider the original horizontal axis, it oscillates from long to short as the ball is rolled along. Correspondingly, the original vertical axis alternates between short and long. indd 34 Rotation Rotation Deformation of a soft ball under shear. 16 3rd Mode 3 Nodes 4th Mode 4 Nodes Normal modes of motion. motion, going from “tall and thin” to “short and fat”.

There are two effects a rise in temperature can give to a molecule that enable this particular type of molecular motion. The first is thermal energy. The second, made available through thermal expansion, is an increase in the empty space between the molecules, called the free volume. We shall deal first with the effect of thermal energy, returning to the question of free volume later in this chapter. 6 Temperature and energy Increasing the temperature of a material increases the thermal energy of the molecules.

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