By Andre A. Dhondt

In nature there exist 3 major forms of biotic interactions among participants of other species: festival, predation, and mutualism. All 3 exert strong choice pressures, and all 3 form groups. even though, the query of the way very important interspecific pageant in nature rather is is still debatable and unresolved. This booklet presents a severe and exhaustive assessment of the subject. even though the examples are restricted in general to birds (interspecific festival and group constitution were exhaustively studied during this animal staff, and many experimental facts are available), the conclusions reached have a miles broader relevance to inhabitants ecologists generally. The ebook purposes that the coexistence of species is the results of either previous and shortly on-going interspecific pageant. in addition, knowing the significance of interspecific festival in usual platforms might be more and more very important while modelling the consequences of weather switch on populations.

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Tufted titmouse), whereas in other species the breeding pair is assisted by unrelated adults ((Black tit (Tarboton 1981))? In summary, the multiple removal experiments show that the extent and timing of space limitation in tits (and in other resident bird species) is driven, at least in part, by when the birds defend territories, whether they be pair territories or group territories. If birds only defend territories shortly before and during the breeding season, it is more likely that competition for space will result in summer limited populations.

This result implies a non-linear density dependence in at least one rate that influences breeding population size. We can therefore expect non-linear density dependent effects not just in tits, but in most organisms. 3 Conclusions Wiens (1989) listed a set of criteria that could be used to establish the existence of interspecific competition. He listed them in increasing degree of certainty. I will here use these criteria as modified slightly by Newton (1998). I reorganized these criteria and combined them with components of the definition to answer the double question: what conditions need to be met so that the possible existence of interspecific competition can even be considered (necessary conditions), and what constitutes evidence that interspecific competition occurs (sufficient conditions)?

1 Introduction In this chapter I explore the extent to which food is limiting. If food is limiting, competition for food is likely. During the non-breeding season birds need to maximize their chances of survival and optimize their physical and physiological condition in preparation for the following breeding season. Winter food limitation, therefore, can impact survival rates and subsequent breeding population size, as well as the ability to start reproduction at the right time and in optimal conditions.

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