By A. M. Krieg, G. Hartmann, A.-K. Yi (auth.), Professor Dr. Hermann Wagner Ph.D. (eds.)

Bacterial CpG-DNA sequences not just serve for genetic details yet act as "danger" sign to alert immune cells corresponding to macrophages and dendritic cells. CpG-DNA without delay reasons activation of those contributors of the innate immune approach yielding in up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines. As such they act as "natural" adjuvants to advertise protecting Th1 polarized T mobilephone immune responses. This ebook is the 1st finished overview of the knowledge rising during this field.

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Furthermore, we synthesized both a 30-mer nucleotide having 5'-AACGTT-3' and its analogue, in which C was replaced with methyl cytosine; both ODNs could induce IFN equally. Accordingly, we thought that the fifth hypothesis was incorrect. In 1994, we found that certain hexamers, acting alone, could induce IFN when they were encapsulated in liposomes (YAMAMOTO T, YAMAMOTO S, KATAOKA T and TOKUNAGA T 1994b). Using this liposome system, we recognized that methylation of the cytosine of AACGTT resulted in a significant decrease of the activity (SONEHARA 1996).

BALB/c mouse spleen cells (I x I07cells/m l) were incubated with 100Jlg/ml of each of the DNA samples for 20h a nd centrifuged. The cell fractions were used for natural killer (NK) assays, a nd the culture supernatants were used fo r interferon (IFN) assays. NK cell activity was measured by a 4-h 51Cr_ release assay using YAC-I lymphoma cells as target cells. 2%, respectively. No correlation between the (G + C) ratio and the activity of DNA was found . (v) We previously reported that a synthetic, single-stranded poly(dG,dC) is active in vitro.

J Immunol 160:1240-1245 Yi A-K, Krieg AM (l998b) Rapid indnction of mitogen activated protein kinases by immune stimulatory CpG DNA. J Immunol 161:4493-4497 Zhao Q, Matson S, Herrara CJ, Fisher E, Yu H, Waggoner A, Krieg AM (1993) Comparison of cellular binding and uptake of antisense phosphodiester, phosphorothioate, and mixed phosphorothioate and methyl phospho nate oligonucleotides. Antisense Research and Development 3:53-66 Zhao Q, Temsamani J, Iadarola PL, Jiang Z, Agrawal S (l996a) Effect of different chemically modified oligodeoxynucleotides on immune stimulation.

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