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L. Zhigilei, D. Ivanov , E. Levengle, S. Badigh and E. M. Bringa, Computer modeling of laser melting and spallation of metal targets, SPIE Proc. 5448, 505– 519 (2004). 37. D. Perez and L. J. Lewis, Ablation of solids under femtosecond laser pulses. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 255504-1-4 (2002). 38. R. R. Letfullin, T. F. George, G. C. Duree and B. M. Bollinger, Ultrashort laser pulse heating of nanoparticles: Comparison of theoretical approaches, Advances in Optical Technologies 2008, ID 251718-1-8 (2008).

George say that this high-temperature distribution has the same rise time as a laser pulse duration. Then, over a time scale of around 100 fs, the nonequilibrium electrons redistribute their energy among themselves. It takes time for the electron–electron Coulomb interaction to result in a local equilibrium (with temperature Te) This process is called thermalized electron energy redistribution (with relaxation time τ e −e ). The excited thermalized electron gas then transfers energy through electron–phonon interactions (within the relaxation time τ e − p ) [11].

E ≠ µ h . Also, despite of free-carrier absorption and impact ionizations, multiphoton absorption should be taken into account for the situation hω < E g , where Eg is the energy gap in the semiconductor and h is Planck’s constant. The probability of multiphoton absorption is proportional to the number of photons obeying the relation khω ≥ E g . In that case, the energy balance should be written for both electrons and holes [30–34]:  (1 − R )(α + Ωn ) I ( z, t )  ∂U e + ∇( − ke∇Te ) = −Geo (Te − To ) +   2 2 2 ∂t  +(1 − R ) β I ( z, t )  ∂U o = Geo (Te − To ) − Gol (To − Ta ) ∂t ∂U a + ∇( −ka ∇Ta ) = Goa (To − Ta ).

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