By Fausto Luchetti (auth.), John Harwood PhD, DSc, Ramón Aparicio PhD (eds.)
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78) are processed. extraction, the oil yields are similar or higher than those obtained with the pressing method (Mascolo et al. 1980). 9 THE DUAL-PHASE DECANTER The conventional three-phase decanter has many advantages in comparison with other olive processing methods, but it has important drawbacks. The main ones are the addition oflukewarm water to the olive paste (50-70 L water/100 kg olives), the lower content of natural antioxidants (polyphenols) of oil because of the water added, and the high volume of vegetation water.
The results of the research (Cichelli and Di Giovacchino, 1994) show that the highest costs obviously correspond to structures and labor (Figure 2-19), although the index of plant utilization and productivity are correcting factors. Cichelli and Di Giovacchino ( 1994) state that the weight of the investment in machinery over the total cost diminishes when the index of plant utilization increases, although the aforementioned weight is higher in the economic study of the centrifugation methods. Similar conclusions resulted from analyzing the weight of labor costs in relation to the index of plant utilization, although these costs are lower in the centrifugation methods.
N-octane, produced from the decomposition of 10-hydroperoxide of oleic acid and correlated with "fusty" defect (del Barrio, Gutierrez, & Gutierrez 1981) 2. 5 Technological Aspects 43 3. acetic acid, formed from the acetic fermentation of sugars through the action of Acetobacter bacteria and correlated with "winey" defect (Di Giovacchino & Serraiocco 1995) 4. ethyl acetate, formed through esterification of acetic acid and ethyl alcohol during the above-mentioned fermentation and correlated with "vinegary" defect These substances are especially present in olive oils obtained by the pressing method because of the use of filtering diaphragms, or mats, for a long time; the vegetable organic matter remains on filtering diaphragms for many days, and therefore can ferment and decompose.